Optical parametric oscillation is a nonlinear process that enables coherent generation of ‘signal’ and ‘idler’ waves, shifted in frequency from the pump wave1,2. Efficient parametric conversion is the paradigm for the generation of twin or entangled photons for quantum optics applications such as quantum cryptography3,4, or for the generation of new frequencies in spectral domains not accessible by existing devices. Rapid development in the field of quantum information requires monolithic, alignment-free sources that enable efficient coupling into optical fibres and possibly electrical injection. During the past decade, much effort has been devoted to the development of integrated devices for quantum information5,6,7 and to the realization of all-semiconductor parametric oscillators8,9. Nevertheless, at present optical parametric oscillators typically rely on nonlinear crystals placed into complex external cavities, and pumped by powerful external lasers. Long interaction lengths are typically required and the phase mismatch between the parametric waves propagating at different velocities2 results in poor parametric conversion efficiencies. Here we report the demonstration of parametric oscillation in a monolithic semiconductor triple microcavity with signal, pump and idler waves propagating along the vertical direction of the nanostructure. Alternatively, signal and idler beams can also be collected at finite angles, allowing the generation of entangled photon pairs. The pump threshold intensity is low enough to envisage the realization of an all-semiconductor electrically pumped micro-parametric oscillator.
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This work was financially supported by the ‘Clermont 2’ project and the Délégation Générale pour l'Armement (DGA). LPA de l'ENS is ‘Unité Mixte de Recherche Associée au CNRS et aux Universités Paris 6 et 7’.
J. Tignon, C. Ciuti, G. Dasbach and C. Diederichs have filed a patent based on this work (French patent application number 05/05 708; filing date 06 June 2005).
Scheme for the electrical injection. This file contains additional information on the electrical injection of the triple microcavity: a sketch of the electrically injected system, the dielectric structure and the calculated reflectivity. (DOC 52 kb)
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Diederichs, C., Tignon, J., Dasbach, G. et al. Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities. Nature 440, 904–907 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04602
Communications Physics (2019)
Light: Science & Applications (2018)
Journal of Chemical Sciences (2016)
Scientific Reports (2013)
Light: Science & Applications (2013)