Letter | Published:

Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators

Nature volume 440, pages 508511 (23 March 2006) | Download Citation

Subjects

Abstract

Photonic components are superior to electronic ones in terms of operational bandwidth, but the diffraction limit of light poses a significant challenge to the miniaturization and high-density integration of optical circuits. The main approach to circumvent this problem is to exploit the hybrid nature of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), which are light waves coupled to free electron oscillations in a metal1,2 that can be laterally confined below the diffraction limit using subwavelength metal structures3,4,5,6,7,8. However, the simultaneous realization of strong confinement and a propagation loss sufficiently low for practical applications has long been out of reach. Channel SPP modes—channel plasmon polaritons (CPPs)8—are electromagnetic waves that are bound to and propagate along the bottom of V-shaped grooves milled in a metal film. They are expected to exhibit useful subwavelength confinement, relatively low propagation loss9, single-mode operation10 and efficient transmission around sharp bends11. Our previous experiments showed that CPPs do exist and that they propagate over tens of micrometres along straight subwavelength grooves12. Here we report the design, fabrication and characterization of CPP-based subwavelength waveguide components operating at telecom wavelengths: Y-splitters, Mach–Zehnder interferometers and waveguide–ring resonators. We demonstrate that CPP guides can indeed be used for large-angle bending and splitting of radiation, thereby enabling the realization of ultracompact plasmonic components and paving the way for a new class of integrated optical circuits.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    Surface Plasmons (Springer, Berlin, 1988)

  2. 2.

    , & Surface plasmon subwavelength optics. Nature 424, 824–830 (2003)

  3. 3.

    et al. Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes. Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001)

  4. 4.

    , , , & Guiding of a one-dimensional optical beam with nanometer diameter. Opt. Lett. 22, 475–477 (1997)

  5. 5.

    , , & Electromagnetic energy transport via linear chains of silver nanoparticles. Opt. Lett. 23, 1331–1333 (1998)

  6. 6.

    et al. Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides. Nature Mater. 2, 229–232 (2003)

  7. 7.

    & Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide. Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158–1160 (2003)

  8. 8.

    & Channel polaritons. Phys. Rev. B 66, 035403 (2002)

  9. 9.

    & Channel plasmon-polariton in a triangular groove on a metal surface. Opt. Lett. 29, 1069–1071 (2004)

  10. 10.

    & Single-mode subwavelength waveguide with channel plasmon-polaritons in triangular grooves on a metal surface. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6323–6325 (2004)

  11. 11.

    & Plasmonic subwavelength waveguides: next to zero losses at sharp bends. Opt. Lett. 30, 1186–1188 (2005)

  12. 12.

    , , & Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005)

  13. 13.

    & Performance of S-bends for integrated-optic waveguides. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 19, 289–292 (1998)

  14. 14.

    & Near-field characterization of planar photonic-crystal-waveguide structures. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 757–769 (2004)

  15. 15.

    Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides. Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000)

  16. 16.

    , & Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833–5835 (2004)

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the European Network of Excellence, PLASMO-NANO-DEVICES and STREP SPP.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst, Denmark

    • Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi
    •  & Valentyn S. Volkov
  2. ISIS, CNRS UMR 7006, Université Louis Pasteur, 8 allée Monge, BP 70028, 67083 Strasbourg, France

    • Eloïse Devaux
    • , Jean-Yves Laluet
    •  & Thomas W. Ebbesen

Authors

  1. Search for Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi in:

  2. Search for Valentyn S. Volkov in:

  3. Search for Eloïse Devaux in:

  4. Search for Jean-Yves Laluet in:

  5. Search for Thomas W. Ebbesen in:

Competing interests

Reprints and permissions information is available at npg.nature.com/reprintsandpermissions. The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi.

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04594

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.