Malaria risk

Estimating clinical episodes of malaria (reply)

Article metrics


We have provided an evidence-based framework for estimating the public-health burden of P. falciparum malaria1 by using a uniform series of structured, transparent and reproducible data and methods to define the cartography of this parasite's clinical impact at a global scale. This contribution to global disease modelling is questioned by Nahlen et al.2 for United Nations agencies responsible for measuring development targets (see also ref. 3), and our estimation of the malaria burden outside Africa is challenged by Bell et al.4.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Snow, R. W., Guerra, C. A., Noor, A. M., Myint, H. Y. & Hay, S. I. Nature 434, 214–217 (2005).

  2. 2

    Nahlen, B. L., Korenromp, E. L., Miller, J. & Shibuya, K. doi: 10.1038/nature04178Nature (2005).

  3. 3

    Attaran, A. PLoS Med. (in the press).

  4. 4

    Bell, D. R., Jorgensen, P., Christophel, E. M. & Palmer, K. L. doi:10.1038/nature04179 Nature (2005).

  5. 5

    WHO Expert Committee on Malaria: 20th Report (World Health Organization, Geneva, 2000).

  6. 6

    World Health Organization A Global Strategy for Malaria Control (WHO, Geneva, 1993).

  7. 7

    Murray, C. J. L. & Lopez, A. D. Lancet 349, 1269–1276 (1997).

  8. 8

    World Health Organization The World Health Report 1999: Making a Difference — Rolling Back Malaria (WHO, Geneva, 1999).

  9. 9

    Hay, S. I., Guerra, C. A. & Snow, R. W. Determination of Populations at Malaria Risk (M50/370/19) for Monitoring and Evaluation Group (MERG), Roll Back Malaria (RBM), World Health Organization (WHO) (WHO, Geneva, 2004).

  10. 10

    Korenromp, E. L. for the RBM MERG Task Force on Malaria Morbidity: Malaria Incidence Estimates at Country Level for the Year 2004 — Proposed Estimates and Draft Report (World Health Organization, Roll Back Malaria, Geneva, 2005).

  11. 11

    Snow, R. W., Craig, M. H., Newton, C. R. J. C. & Steketee, R. W. The Public Health Burden of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Africa: Deriving the Numbers (The Disease Control Priorities Project (DCPP) Working Paper Number 11, Washington DC, 2003).

  12. 12

    Muller, I., Bockarie, M., Alpers, M. & Smith, T. Trends Parasitol. 19, 253–259 (2003).

  13. 13

    Over, M., Bakote'e, B., Velayudhan, R., Wilikai, P. & Graves, P. M. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 71, 214–223 (2004).

  14. 14

    Maitland, K. et al. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 90, 614–620 (1996).

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Robert W. Snow.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Further reading


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.