The ability to manipulate biological cells and micrometre-scale particles plays an important role in many biological and colloidal science applications. However, conventional manipulation techniques—including optical tweezers1,2,3,4,5,6, electrokinetic forces (electrophoresis7,8, dielectrophoresis9, travelling-wave dielectrophoresis10,11), magnetic tweezers12,13, acoustic traps14 and hydrodynamic flows15,16,17—cannot achieve high resolution and high throughput at the same time. Optical tweezers offer high resolution for trapping single particles, but have a limited manipulation area owing to tight focusing requirements; on the other hand, electrokinetic forces and other mechanisms provide high throughput, but lack the flexibility or the spatial resolution necessary for controlling individual cells. Here we present an optical image-driven dielectrophoresis technique that permits high-resolution patterning of electric fields on a photoconductive surface for manipulating single particles. It requires 100,000 times less optical intensity than optical tweezers. Using an incoherent light source (a light-emitting diode or a halogen lamp) and a digital micromirror spatial light modulator, we have demonstrated parallel manipulation of 15,000 particle traps on a 1.3 × 1.0 mm2 area. With direct optical imaging control, multiple manipulation functions are combined to achieve complex, multi-step manipulation protocols.
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We thank E.R.B. McCabe, U. Bhardwaj, R. Sun and F. Yu at UCLA for providing cultured human B cells for our experiments. We also thank A. Wheeler for technical advice regarding our cell experiments. This project is supported by the Center for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration (CMISE), a NASA University Research, Engineering and Technology Institute (URETI), and the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA). P.Y.C acknowledges support from the Graduate Research and Education in Adaptive Bio-Technology (GREAT) training program. A.T.O acknowledges support from a National Science Foundation fellowship.
Reprints and permissions information is available at npg.nature.com/reprintsandpermissions. The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Chiou, P., Ohta, A. & Wu, M. Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images. Nature 436, 370–372 (2005) doi:10.1038/nature03831
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