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Release of volatiles from a possible cryovolcano from near-infrared imaging of Titan


Titan is the only satellite in our Solar System with a dense atmosphere. The surface pressure is 1.5 bar (ref. 1) and, similar to the Earth, N2 is the main component of the atmosphere. Methane is the second most important component2, but it is photodissociated on a timescale of 107 years (ref. 3). This short timescale has led to the suggestion that Titan may possess a surface or subsurface reservoir of hydrocarbons4,5 to replenish the atmosphere. Here we report near-infrared images of Titan obtained on 26 October 2004 by the Cassini spacecraft. The images show that a widespread methane ocean does not exist; subtle albedo variations instead suggest topographical variations, as would be expected for a more solid (perhaps icy) surface. We also find a circular structure 30 km in diameter that does not resemble any features seen on other icy satellites. We propose that the structure is a dome formed by upwelling icy plumes that release methane into Titan's atmosphere.

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Figure 1: Titan's map at 2.03 µm wavelength.
Figure 2: VIMS high-resolution observations.
Figure 3: High-resolution image of Fig. 2d at different wavelengths.
Figure 4: Geological interpretation of the high-resolution image.

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We thank E. Mercier, D. Mège, J.-P. Combe and O. Bourgeois for discussions about interpreting the high-resolution image, and R. Wagner for help in the projection of the cubes.

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Correspondence to C. Sotin.

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Sotin, C., Jaumann, R., Buratti, B. et al. Release of volatiles from a possible cryovolcano from near-infrared imaging of Titan. Nature 435, 786–789 (2005).

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