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Quantum criticality

Abstract

As we mark the centenary of Albert Einstein's seminal contribution to both quantum mechanics and special relativity, we approach another anniversary — that of Einstein's foundation of the quantum theory of solids. But 100 years on, the same experimental measurement that puzzled Einstein and his contemporaries is forcing us to question our understanding of how quantum matter transforms at ultra-low temperatures.

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Figure 1
Figure 2: Schematic illustration of a quantum critical point showing the phase diagram (a) and the growth of droplets of quantum critical matter near the quantum critical point (b).
Figure 3: ‘Singularity in the phase diagram’ illustrated by data taken from the material YbRh2Si2 where an applied magnetic field tunes the material to a quantum critical point25.

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Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge discussions with P. Chandra, Z. Fisk, A. P. Mackenzie and D. Pines. P.C. is supported by the National Science Foundation. A.J.S. is supported by the Royal Society, the Leverhulme Trust and the EPSRC.

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Coleman, P., Schofield, A. Quantum criticality. Nature 433, 226–229 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03279

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