A relationship between solar activity and aurorae on Earth was postulated1,2 long before space probes directly detected plasma propagating outwards from the Sun3. Violent solar eruption events trigger interplanetary shocks4 that compress Earth's magnetosphere, leading to increased energetic particle precipitation into the ionosphere and subsequent auroral storms5,6. Monitoring shocks is now part of the ‘Space Weather’ forecast programme aimed at predicting solar-activity-related environmental hazards. The outer planets also experience aurorae, and here we report the discovery of a strong transient polar emission on Saturn, tentatively attributed to the passage of an interplanetary shock—and ultimately to a series of solar coronal mass ejection (CME) events. We could trace the shock-triggered events from Earth, where auroral storms were recorded, to Jupiter, where the auroral activity was strongly enhanced, and to Saturn, where it activated the unusual polar source. This establishes that shocks retain their properties and their ability to trigger planetary auroral activity thoughout the Solar System. Our results also reveal differences in the planetary auroral responses on the passing shock, especially in their latitudinal and local time dependences.
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This work is based partly on observations with the NASA/ESA HST obtained at the STScI, which is operated by the AURA, Inc. for NASA.
The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests.
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Prangé, R., Pallier, L., Hansen, K. et al. An interplanetary shock traced by planetary auroral storms from the Sun to Saturn. Nature 432, 78–81 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02986
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