Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

A high-performance cathode for the next generation of solid-oxide fuel cells


Fuel cells directly and efficiently convert chemical energy to electrical energy1. Of the various fuel cell types, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) combine the benefits of environmentally benign power generation with fuel flexibility. However, the necessity for high operating temperatures (800–1,000 °C) has resulted in high costs and materials compatibility challenges2. As a consequence, significant effort has been devoted to the development of intermediate-temperature (500–700 °C) SOFCs. A key obstacle to reduced-temperature operation of SOFCs is the poor activity of traditional cathode materials for electrochemical reduction of oxygen in this temperature regime2. Here we present Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ(BSCF) as a new cathode material for reduced-temperature SOFC operation. BSCF, incorporated into a thin-film doped ceria fuel cell, exhibits high power densities (1,010 mW cm-2 and 402 mW cm-2 at 600 °C and 500 °C, respectively) when operated with humidified hydrogen as the fuel and air as the cathode gas. We further demonstrate that BSCF is ideally suited to ‘single-chamber’ fuel-cell operation, where anode and cathode reactions take place within the same physical chamber3. The high power output of BSCF cathodes results from the high rate of oxygen diffusion through the material. By enabling operation at reduced temperatures, BSCF cathodes may result in widespread practical implementation of SOFCs.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: The area specific resistance (ASR) of the cathode material BSCF under air, measured both with (three-electrode, half cell) and without (two-electrode, symmetric cell) a reference electrode.
Figure 2: Performance obtained from a Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ ( 20 µm)|Sm0.15Ce0.85O2-δ ( 20 µm)|Ni + Sm0.15Ce0.85O2-δ ( 700 µm) fuel cell.
Figure 3: Cell voltage and power density as functions of current density obtained in single-chamber mode from a Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ + Sm0.15Ce0.85O2-δ ( 20 µm)|Sm0.15Ce0.85O2-δ ( 20 µm)|Ni + Sm0.15Ce0.85O2-δ ( 700 µm) fuel cell.
Figure 4: Comparison of the catalytic activities of BSCF (Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ), SSC (Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-δ), and LSCF (La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ) oxides towards propane oxidation under stoichiometric conditions.


  1. Steel, B. C. H. & Heinzel, A. Materials for fuel-cell technologies. Nature 414, 345–352 (2001)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Brandon, N. P., Skinner, S. & Steele, B. C. H. Recent advances in materials for fuel cells. Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 33, 183–213 (2003)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Hibino, T. et al. A low-operating-temperature solid oxide fuel cell in hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Science 288, 2031–2033 (2000)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Fleig, J. Solid oxide fuel cell cathodes: Polarization mechanisms and modeling of the electrochemical performance. Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 33, 361–382 (2003)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Shao, Z. P. et al. Investigation of the permeation behavior and stability of a Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ oxygen membrane. J. Membr. Sci. 172, 177–188 (2000)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Shao, Z. P., Dong, H., Xiong, G. X., Cong, Y. & Yang, W. S. Performance of a mixed-conducting ceramic membrane reactor with high oxygen permeability for methane conversion. J. Membr. Sci. 183, 181–192 (2001)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Huang, K., Wan, J. & Goodenough, J. B. Increasing power density of LSGM-based solid oxide fuel cells using new anode materials. J. Electrochem. Soc. 148, A788–A794 (2001)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Ishihara, T., Fukui, S., Nishiguchi, H. & Takita, Y. La-doped BaCoO3 as a cathode for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells using a LaGaO3 based electrolyte. J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, A823–A828 (2002)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Ralph, J. M., Rossignol, C. & Kumar, R. Cathode materials for reduced-temperature SOFCs. J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, A1518–A1522 (2003)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Xia, C. R. & Liu, M. L. Novel cathodes for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Adv. Mater. 14, 521–523 (2002)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Kim, S., Yang, Y. L., Jacobson, A. J. & Abeles, B. Diffusion and surface exchange coefficients in mixed ionic and electronic conducting oxides from the pressure dependence of oxygen permeation. Solid State Ionics 106, 189–195 (1998)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Xu, S. J. & Thomson, W. J. Oxygen permeation rates through ion-conducting perovskite membranes. Chem. Eng. Sci 54, 3839–3850 (1999)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Tsai, T. & Barnett, S. A. Effect of LSM-YSZ cathode on thin-electrolyte solid oxide fuel cell performance. Solid State Ionics 93, 207–217 (1997)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Fukunaga, H., Koyama, M., Takahashi, N., Wen, C. & Yamada, K. Reaction model of dense Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3 as SOFC cathode. Solid State Ionics 132, 279–285 (2000)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. van Veen, A. C., Rebeilleau, M., Farrusseng, D. & Mirodatos, C. Studies on the performance stability of mixed conducting BSCFO membranes in medium temperature oxygen permeation. Chem. Commun., 32–33 (2003)

  16. Steele, B. C. H. Appraisal of Ce1-yGdyO2-y/2 electrolytes for IT-SOFC operation at 500 °C. Solid State Ionics 129, 95–110 (2000)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Xia, C. R. & Liu, M. L. A simple and cost-effective approach to fabrication of dense ceramic membranes on porous substrates. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 1903–1905 (2001)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Microsystems Technology Office. Additional support was provided by the National Science Foundation through the Caltech Center for the Science and Engineering of Materials. Selected oxygen permeability measurements were carried out in the Laboratory of Reaction Engineering and Energy, Institute of Research on Catalysis, CNRS, France, during the visit of Z.P.S. there, hosted by C. Mirodatos.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sossina M. Haile.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Figure 1

The general operation principle of a single-chamber fuel cell using an oxygen ionic conducting electrolyte. (PDF 27 kb)

Supplementary Figure 2

Crystal structure and phase stability of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF). (PDF 51 kb)

Supplementary Figure 3

The performance of silver alone as a cathode for Ce0.85Sm0.15O2-δ (SDC) based fuel cells. (PDF 28 kb)

Supplementary Figure 4

Electrochemical behaviour of an anode supported fuel cell with Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-δ + Ce0.85Sm0.15O2-δ (70:30%wt.) as the cathode with 3% H2O + H2 supplied to the anode and air supplied to the cathode. (PDF 53 kb)

Supplementary Figure 5

Analysis of the contributions to the polarization drops across a Ni + SDC (700 µm) | SDC (20 µm) | BSCF (20 µm) fuel cell operated in dual chamber mode. (PDF 36 kb)

Supplementary Figure 6

The difference between fuel cell temperature and furnace temperature in single chamber configuration using propane+oxygen mixture as feed gas. (PDF 19 kb)

Supplementary Figure 7

Oxygen permeability measurement of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) membrane by gas chromatography method. (PDF 24 kb)

Supplementary Figure 8

Measurement of oxygen vacancy diffusion coefficient, DV, and oxygen surface exchange coefficient, ka, from oxygen permeation studies and detailed modelling of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF). (PDF 46 kb)

Supplementary Figure 9

Activation energy for oxygen transportation through Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-d dense membranes based simply on oxygen permeation data. (PDF 14 kb)

Supplementary Figure 10

Influence of CO2 and H2O on the area specific resistance of the Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ cathode. (PDF 42 kb)

Supplementary Figure 11

Influence of cathode thickness and fabrication methods on the area specific resistivity of the Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) cathode. (PDF 25 kb)

Supplementary Figure 12

Long term performance of fuel cells using a Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) based cathode. (PDF 20 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Shao, Z., Haile, S. A high-performance cathode for the next generation of solid-oxide fuel cells. Nature 431, 170–173 (2004).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing