Temporal difference models describe higher-order learning in humans


The ability to use environmental stimuli to predict impending harm is critical for survival. Such predictions should be available as early as they are reliable. In pavlovian conditioning, chains of successively earlier predictors are studied in terms of higher-order relationships, and have inspired computational theories such as temporal difference learning1. However, there is at present no adequate neurobiological account of how this learning occurs. Here, in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of higher-order aversive conditioning, we describe a key computational strategy that humans use to learn predictions about pain. We show that neural activity in the ventral striatum and the anterior insula displays a marked correspondence to the signals for sequential learning predicted by temporal difference models. This result reveals a flexible aversive learning process ideally suited to the changing and uncertain nature of real-world environments. Taken with existing data on reward learning2, our results suggest a critical role for the ventral striatum in integrating complex appetitive and aversive predictions to coordinate behaviour.

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Figure 1: Experimental design and temporal difference model.
Figure 2: Temporal difference prediction error (statistical parametric maps).
Figure 3: Temporal difference prediction error (impulse responses).
Figure 4: Temporal difference value (statistical parametric maps and impulse response in the right anterior insula).


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We thank P. Allen and E. Featherstone for technical help. This work was funded by Wellcome Trust program grants to R.S.F., K.J.F., M.K. and R.J.D. P.D. was funded by the Gatsby Charitable foundation.

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Correspondence to Ben Seymour.

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Seymour, B., O'Doherty, J., Dayan, P. et al. Temporal difference models describe higher-order learning in humans. Nature 429, 664–667 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02581

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