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Assessing the redundancy of MADS-box genes during carpel and ovule development


Carpels are essential for sexual plant reproduction because they house the ovules and subsequently develop into fruits that protect, nourish and ultimately disperse the seeds. The AGAMOUS (AG) gene is necessary for plant sexual reproduction because stamens and carpels are absent from ag mutant flowers1,2. However, the fact that sepals are converted into carpelloid organs in certain mutant backgrounds even in the absence of AG activity indicates that an AG-independent carpel-development pathway exists2. AG is a member of a monophyletic clade of MADS-box genes that includes SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1), SHP2 and SEEDSTICK (STK)3, indicating that these four genes might share partly redundant activities. Here we show that the SHP genes are responsible for AG-independent carpel development. We also show that the STK gene is required for normal development of the funiculus, an umbilical-cord-like structure that connects the developing seed to the fruit, and for dispersal of the seeds when the fruit matures. We further show that all four members of the AG clade are required for specifying the identity of ovules, the landmark invention during the course of vascular plant evolution that enabled seed plants to become the most successful group of land plants4.

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Figure 1: AG acts redundantly with SHP genes to specify carpel identity.
Figure 2: Characterization of STK.
Figure 3: All members of the AG clade redundantly specify ovule identity.
Figure 4

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We thank A. Ray for advice on scanning electron microscopy, D. Weigel for providing the pDW137 vector, members of Yanofsky laboratory for comments, and H. Chang and P. Golshani for technical assistance. A.P. received a scholarship from the Ananda Mahidol Foundation, and this work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation (to M.Y.).

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Correspondence to Martin F. Yanofsky.

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Pinyopich, A., Ditta, G., Savidge, B. et al. Assessing the redundancy of MADS-box genes during carpel and ovule development. Nature 424, 85–88 (2003).

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