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Chemical and behavioural characterization of the rabbit mammary pheromone


Mammals owe part of their evolutionary success to the harmonious exchanges of information, energy and immunity between females and their offspring. This functional reciprocity is vital for the survival and normal development of infants, and for the inclusive fitness of parents1,2. It is best seen in the intense exchanges taking place around the mother's offering of, and the infant's quest for, milk. All mammalian females have evolved behavioural and sensory methods of stimulating and guiding their inexperienced newborns to their mammae, whereas newborns have coevolved means to respond to them efficiently3. Among these cues, maternal odours have repeatedly been shown to be involved4,5,6, but the chemical identity and pheromonal nature of these cues have not been definitively characterized until now. Here we focus on the nature of an odour signal emitted by the female rabbit to which newborn pups respond by attraction and oral grasping, and provide a complete chemical and behavioural description of a pheromone of mammary origin in a mammalian species.

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Figure 1: The GCO assay.
Figure 2: Screening, by the glass-rod assay, of milk volatiles presumed to have behavioural activity.
Figure 3: The key impact of 2MB2 in milk (glass-rod assays; open bars and squares, searching; solid bars and squares, grasping).
Figure 4: Selectivity, specificity and independence from learning of pup responsiveness to 2MB2 (glass-rod assays; open bars, searching; solid bars, grasping).


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We thank J. L. Le Quéré for support and advice; P. Coudert, J. Ponceau, J. L. Vrillon and P. Mercier for giving access to their colonies; P. Orgeur, J. P. Drouet, M. Jouanno, F. Lebas, L. Fortun-Lamothe, M. Theau-Clément, G. Thébault, G. Bolet, A. Locatelli, Y. Breuzin and J. P. Francinot for contributions; D. Licois and R. Hudson for providing Lebas' and Schley's milking devices; R. L. Doty, V. H. Dennenberg, A. Holley, J. P. Montmayeur, P. Coudert, R. Hudson, P. Salin and H. Distel for discussions; and R. Langlois, E. Hertling and C. Ferdenzi for logistic support. This work was conducted in part while B.S. and G.C. were at Unité de Physiologie de la Reproduction, CNRS-Inra, Nouzilly, France. G.C. was sponsored by Région Poitou-Charente-Inra and the Fyssen Foundation.

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Correspondence to Benoist Schaal.

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Schaal, B., Coureaud, G., Langlois, D. et al. Chemical and behavioural characterization of the rabbit mammary pheromone. Nature 424, 68–72 (2003).

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