Vertebrates do not look like jellyfish because the bones of their skeletons are levers that allow movement and protect vital organs. Bones come in an enormous variety of shapes and sizes to accomplish these goals, but, with few exceptions, use one process — endochondral bone formation — to generate the skeleton. The past few years have seen an enormous increase in understanding of the signalling pathways and the transcription factors that control endochondral bone development.
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I thank A. McMahon for a careful review of this manuscript.
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Kronenberg, H. Developmental regulation of the growth plate. Nature 423, 332–336 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01657
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