Matter and energy cannot be teleported (that is, transferred from one place to another without passing through intermediate locations). However, teleportation of quantum states (the ultimate structure of objects) is possible1: only the structure is teleported—the matter stays at the source side and must be already present at the final location. Several table-top experiments have used qubits2,3,4,5,6,7 (two-dimensional quantum systems) or continuous variables8,9,10 to demonstrate the principle over short distances. Here we report a long-distance experimental demonstration of probabilistic quantum teleportation. Qubits carried by photons of 1.3 µm wavelength are teleported onto photons of 1.55 µm wavelength from one laboratory to another, separated by 55 m but connected by 2 km of standard telecommunications fibre. The first (and, with foreseeable technologies, the only) application of quantum teleportation is in quantum communication, where it could help to extend quantum cryptography to larger distances11,12,13.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Nature Communications Open Access 03 August 2020
Scientific Reports Open Access 13 July 2020
Communications Physics Open Access 04 September 2018
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Bennett, C. H. et al. Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993)
Boschi, D., Branca, S., De Martini, F., Hardy, L. & Popescu, S. Experimental realization of teleporting an unknown pure quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels. Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1121–1125 (1998)
Bouwmeester, D. et al. Experimental quantum teleportation. Nature 390, 575–579 (1997)
Nielsen, M. A., Knill, E. & Laflamme, R. Complete quantum teleportation using nuclear magnetic resonance. Nature 396, 52–55 (1998)
Kim, Y.-H., Kulik, S. P. & Shih, Y. Quantum teleportation of polarization state with a complete Bell state measurement. Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1370–1373 (2001)
Lombardi, E., Sciarrino, F., Popescu, S. & De Martini, F. Teleportation of a vacuum–one-photon qubit. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 070402 (2002)
Jennewein, T., Weihs, G., Pan, J.-W. & Zeilinger, A. Experimental nonlocality proof of quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 017903 (2002)
Furusawa, A. et al. Unconditional quantum teleportation. Science 282, 706–709 (1998)
Babichev, S. A., Ries, J., Lvovsky, A. I. Quantum scissors: teleportation of single-mode optical states by mean of a nonlocal single photon. Preprint quant-ph/0208066 at 〈http://xxx.lanl.gov〉 (2002).
Bowen, W. P. et al. Experimental investigation of continuous variable quantum teleportation. Preprint quant-ph/0207179 at 〈http://xxx.lanl.gov〉 (2002).
Gisin, N., Ribordy, G., Tittel, W. & Zbinden, H. Quantum cryptography. Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002)
Waks, E., Zeevi, A. & Yamamoto, Y. Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks. Phys. Rev A 65, 052310 (2002)
Jacobs, B. C., Pittman, T. B. & Franson, J. D. Quantum relays and noise suppression using linear optics. Phys. Rev. A 66, 052307 (2002)
Gottesman, D. & Chuang, I. L. Demonstrating the viability of universal quantum computation using teleportation and single-qubit operations. Nature 402, 390–393 (1999)
Briegel, H.-J., Dur, W., Cirac, J. I. & Zoller, P. Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998)
Zukowski, M., Zeilinger, A., Horne, M. A. & Ekert, A. K. “Event-ready-detectors” Bell experiment via entanglement swapping. Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4287–4290 (1993)
Pan, J.-W., Bouwmeester, D., Weinfurter, H. & Zeilinger, A. Experimental entanglement swapping: Entangling photons that never interacted. Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3891–3894 (1998)
Lütkenhaus, N., Calsamiglia, J. & Suominen, K.-A. Bell measurements for teleportation. Phys. Rev. A 59, 3295–3300 (1999)
Braunstein, S. L. & Kimble, H. J. Teleportation of continuous quantum variables. Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 869–872 (1998)
Tittel, W. & Weihs, G. Photonic entanglement for fundamental tests and quantum communication. Quant. Inf. Comput. 1, 3–56 (2001)
Brendel, J., Tittel, W., Zbinden, H. & Gisin, N. Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication. Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999)
Thew, R. T., Tanzilli, S., Tittel, W., Zbinden, H. & Gisin, N. Experimental investigation of the robustness of partially entangled photons over 11 km. Phys. Rev. A. 66, 062304 (2002)
De Riedmatten, H., Marcikiç, I., Tittel, W., Zbinden, H. & Gisin, N. Quantum interferences with photon pairs created in spatially separated sources. Phys. Rev. A (in the press); preprint quant-ph/0208174 at 〈http://xxx.lanl.gov〉 (2002).
Marcikic, I., De Riedmatten, H., Tittel, W., Zbinden, H. & Gisin, N. Femtosecond time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication. Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002)
Lamas-Linares, A., Howell, J. C. & Bouwmeester, D. Stimulated emission of polarization-entangled photons. Nature 412, 887–890 (2001)
Owens, P. C. M., Rarity, J. G., Tapster, P. R., Knight, D. & Townsend, P. D. Photon counting with passively quenched germanium avalanche. Appl. Opt. 33, 6895–6901 (1994)
Stucki, D., Ribordy, G., Stefanov, A. & Zbinden, H. Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APD's. J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967–1981 (2001)
Massar, S. & Popescu, S. Optimal extraction of information from finite quantum ensembles. Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1259–1263 (1995)
Tittel, W., Brendel, J., Zbinden, H. & Gisin, N. Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states. Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000)
De Riedmatten, H., Marcikic, I., Zbinden, H. & Gisin, N. Creating high dimensional entanglement using mode-locked laser. Quant. Inf. Comput. 2, 425–433 (2002)
Grangier, P., Levenson, J. A. & Poizat, J.-P. Quantum non-demolition measurements in optics. Nature 396, 537–542 (1998)
We thank M. Legré for discussions, and C. Barreiro and J.-D. Gautier for technical support. Financial support by the Swiss OFES and NSF within the framework of the European IST project Qucomm and the Swiss National Center for Quantum Photonics is acknowledged. W.T. acknowledges support from the ESF Programme Quantum Information Theory and Quantum Computation (QIT).
The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Marcikic, I., de Riedmatten, H., Tittel, W. et al. Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths. Nature 421, 509–513 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01376
Quantum Information Processing (2022)
Satellite-to-submarine quantum communication based on measurement-device-independent continuous-variable quantum key distribution
Quantum Information Processing (2022)
International Journal of Theoretical Physics (2021)
Nature Communications (2020)
Scientific Reports (2020)