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A role for Drosophila LKB1 in anterior–posterior axis formation and epithelial polarity

Abstract

The PAR-4 and PAR-1 kinases are necessary for the formation of the anterior–posterior (A–P) axis in Caenorhabditis elegans1,2,3. PAR-1 is also required for A–P axis determination in Drosophila4,5. Here we show that the Drosophila par-4 homologue, lkb1, is required for the early A–P polarity of the oocyte, and for the repolarization of the oocyte cytoskeleton that defines the embryonic A–P axis. LKB1 is phosphorylated by PAR-1 in vitro, and overexpression of LKB1 partially rescues the par-1 phenotype. These two kinases therefore function in a conserved pathway for axis formation in flies and worms. lkb1 mutant clones also disrupt apical–basal epithelial polarity, suggesting a general role in cell polarization. The human homologue, LKB1, is mutated in Peutz–Jeghers syndrome6,7 and is regulated by prenylation and by phosphorylation by protein kinase A8,9. We show that protein kinase A phosphorylates Drosophila LKB1 on a conserved site that is important for its activity. Thus, Drosophila and human LKB1 may be functional homologues, suggesting that loss of cell polarity may contribute to tumour formation in individuals with Peutz–Jeghers syndrome.

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Figure 1: lkb1 mutants affect oocyte polarity.
Figure 2: Conservation and localization of LKB1.
Figure 3: Analysis of LKB1 regulation.
Figure 4: lkb1 is required for epithelial polarity.

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Acknowledgements

We thank M. Pal for fly injection; K. Litière for generating the kinesin–β-gal line; I. Palacios, B. Sanson, A. Wodarz and the Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank for strains and antibodies; and J. Rouse, N. Lowe, J. Raff and R. Benton for advice and discussion. S.G.M. was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation and D.StJ. by the Wellcome Trust.

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Correspondence to Daniel St Johnston.

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Martin, S., St Johnston, D. A role for Drosophila LKB1 in anterior–posterior axis formation and epithelial polarity. Nature 421, 379–384 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01296

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