Language is a uniquely human trait likely to have been a prerequisite for the development of human culture. The ability to develop articulate speech relies on capabilities, such as fine control of the larynx and mouth1, that are absent in chimpanzees and other great apes. FOXP2 is the first gene relevant to the human ability to develop language2. A point mutation in FOXP2 co-segregates with a disorder in a family in which half of the members have severe articulation difficulties accompanied by linguistic and grammatical impairment3. This gene is disrupted by translocation in an unrelated individual who has a similar disorder. Thus, two functional copies of FOXP2 seem to be required for acquisition of normal spoken language. We sequenced the complementary DNAs that encode the FOXP2 protein in the chimpanzee, gorilla, orang-utan, rhesus macaque and mouse, and compared them with the human cDNA. We also investigated intraspecific variation of the human FOXP2 gene. Here we show that human FOXP2 contains changes in amino-acid coding and a pattern of nucleotide polymorphism, which strongly suggest that this gene has been the target of selection during recent human evolution.
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We thank F. Heissig for help with the cDNA sequencing; A. von Haeseler, G. Weiss and S. Zöllner for help with the data analysis on an earlier version of the manuscript; J. Wickings at the Centre International de Recherches Medicales for DNA samples of central chimpanzees; and the Bundesminsterium für Bildung und Forschung, the Max Planck Society and the Wellcome Trust for financial support. M.P. was supported by a National Science Foundation postdoctoral research fellowship in bioinformatics. S.E.F. is a Royal Society Research Fellow and A.P.M. is a Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellow.
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