Perovskite materials use earth-abundant elements, have low formation energies for deposition and are compatible with roll-to-roll and other high-volume manufacturing techniques. These features make perovskite solar cells (PSCs) suitable for terawatt-scale energy production with low production costs and low capital expenditure. Demonstrations of performance comparable to that of other thin-film photovoltaics (PVs) and improvements in laboratory-scale cell stability have recently made scale up of this PV technology an intense area of research focus. Here, we review recent progress and challenges in scaling up PSCs and related efforts to enable the terawatt-scale manufacturing and deployment of this PV technology. We discuss common device and module architectures, scalable deposition methods and progress in the scalable deposition of perovskite and charge-transport layers. We also provide an overview of device and module stability, module-level characterization techniques and techno-economic analyses of perovskite PV modules.
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The work was supported by the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 with Alliance for Sustainable Energy, Limited Liability Company (LLC), the Manager and Operator of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The authors acknowledge support from the hybrid perovskite solar cell programme of the National Center for Photovoltaics, funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Solar Energy Technologies Office. T.R.K. and D.H.K. acknowledge support from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) programme.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Li, Z., Klein, T., Kim, D. et al. Scalable fabrication of perovskite solar cells. Nat Rev Mater 3, 18017 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/natrevmats.2018.17
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