Nonlinear photonic metasurfaces

Abstract

Compared with conventional optical elements, 2D photonic metasurfaces, consisting of arrays of antennas with subwavelength thickness (the ‘meta-atoms’), enable the manipulation of light–matter interactions on more compact platforms. The use of metasurfaces with spatially varying arrangements of meta-atoms that have subwavelength lateral resolution allows control of the polarization, phase and amplitude of light. Many exotic phenomena have been successfully demonstrated in linear optics; however, to meet the growing demand for the integration of more functionalities into a single optoelectronic circuit, the tailorable nonlinear optical properties of metasurfaces will also need to be exploited. In this Review, we discuss the design of nonlinear photonic metasurfaces — in particular, the criteria for choosing the materials and symmetries of the meta-atoms — for the realization of nonlinear optical chirality, nonlinear geometric Berry phase and nonlinear wavefront engineering. Finally, we survey the application of nonlinear photonic metasurfaces in optical switching and modulation, and we conclude with an outlook on their use for terahertz nonlinear optics and quantum information processing.

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Figure 1: Schematic energy diagrams of important nonlinear optical processes.
Figure 2: Nonlinear photonic metasurfaces.
Figure 3: Nonlinear optical circular dichroism.
Figure 4: Nonlinear metasurfaces for phase control.
Figure 5: Nonlinear geometric phase elements.
Figure 6: Nonlinear beam shaping and holography.
Figure 7: Nonlinear metamaterials and metasurfaces for optical switching and modulation.

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Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (grants DFG TRR142/A05 and ZE953/7-1). G.X. acknowledges support from China's Recruitment Program of Global Experts and Peacock program of Shenzhen. S.Z. acknowledges support from European Research Council consolidator grant (TOPOLOGICAL).

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Correspondence to Guixin Li or Shuang Zhang or Thomas Zentgraf.

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Li, G., Zhang, S. & Zentgraf, T. Nonlinear photonic metasurfaces. Nat Rev Mater 2, 17010 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/natrevmats.2017.10

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