Liquid–vapour phase change is a useful and efficient process to transfer energy in nature, as well as in numerous domestic and industrial applications. Relatively recent advances in altering surface chemistry, and in the formation of micro- and nanoscale features on surfaces, have led to exciting improvements in liquid–vapour phase-change performance and better understanding of the underlying science. In this Review, we present an overview of the surface, thermal and material science to illustrate how new materials and designs can improve boiling and condensation. There are many parallels between boiling and condensation, such as nucleation of a phase and its departure from a surface; however, the particular set of challenges associated with each phenomenon results in different material designs used in different manners. We also discuss alternative techniques, such as introducing heterogeneous surface chemistry or direct real-time manipulation of the phase-change process, which can offer further control of heat-transfer processes. Finally, long-term robustness is essential to ensure reliability and feasibility but remains a key challenge.
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This work was partially funded by Singapore–MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) and the Office of Naval Research (ONR) with M. Spector as program manager (Contract Nos. N00014-15-1-2483 and N00014-12-1-0624). D.J.P. acknowledges funding received from the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1122374. Any opinion, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Classical Nucleation Theory. (PDF 386 kb)
Recent developments in pool-boiling performance. (PDF 559 kb)
Summary of Boiling and Condensation Data used in Figures S2 and S4. (PDF 214 kb)
Recent developments in condensation heat-transfer performance. (PDF 530 kb)
Data adjustment and extrapolation. (PDF 852 kb)
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Cho, H., Preston, D., Zhu, Y. et al. Nanoengineered materials for liquid–vapour phase-change heat transfer. Nat Rev Mater 2, 16092 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/natrevmats.2016.92
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