Conjugated polymers and related processing techniques have been developed for organic electronic devices ranging from lightweight photovoltaics to flexible displays. These breakthroughs have recently been used to create organic thermoelectric materials, which have potential for wearable heating and cooling devices, and near-room-temperature energy generation. So far, the best thermoelectric materials have been inorganic compounds (such as Bi2Te3) that have relatively low Earth abundance and are fabricated through highly complex vacuum processing routes. Molecular materials and hybrid organic–inorganic materials now demonstrate figures of merit approaching those of these inorganic materials, while also exhibiting unique transport behaviours that are suggestive of optimization pathways and device geometries that were not previously possible. In this Review, we discuss recent breakthroughs for organic materials with high thermoelectric figures of merit and indicate how these materials may be incorporated into new module designs that take advantage of their mechanical and thermoelectric properties.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Nature Communications Open Access 07 July 2022
Ultra-fast fabrication of Bi2Te3 based thermoelectric materials by flash-sintering at room temperature combining with spark plasma sintering
Scientific Reports Open Access 16 June 2022
Nature Communications Open Access 18 May 2022
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $9.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Lee, J. et al. Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with very high brightness and efficiency. Nat. Mater. 15, 92–98 (2016).
Reineke, S., Thomschke, M., Lüssem, B. & Leo, K. White organic light-emitting diodes: status and perspective. Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 1245–1293 (2013).
Dou, L. et al. 25th anniversary article. A decade of organic/polymeric photovoltaic research. Adv. Mater. 25, 6642–6671 (2013).
Sirringhaus, H. 25th anniversary article. Organic field-effect transistors: the path beyond amorphous silicon. Adv. Mater. 26, 1319–1335 (2014).
Cahill, D. G. et al. Nanoscale thermal transport. J. Appl. Phys. 93, 793–818 (2003).
Snyder, G. J. & Toberer, E. S. Complex thermoelectric materials. Nat. Mater. 7, 105–114 (2008).
Vineis, C. J., Shakouri, A., Majumdar, A. & Kanatzidis, M. G. Nanostructured thermoelectrics: big efficiency gains from small features. Adv. Mater. 22, 3970–3980 (2010).
Goldsmid, H. J. The electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power of bismuth telluride. Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 71, 633–646 (1958).
Poudel, B. et al. High-thermoelectric performance of nanostructured bismuth antimony telluride bulk alloys. Science 320, 634–638 (2008).
Venkatasubramanian, R., Siivola, E., Colpitts, T. & O'Quinn, B. Thin-film thermoelectric devices with high room-temperature figures of merit. Nature 413, 597–602 (2001).
Priya, S. & Inman, D. J. Energy Harvesting Technologies Vol. 21 (Springer, 2009).
Rowe, D. M. Thermoelectrics Handbook: Macro to Nano (CRC, 2005).
Bubnova, O. & Crispin, X. Towards polymer-based organic thermoelectric generators. Energy Environ. Sci. 5, 9345–9362 (2012).
Chen, Y., Zhao, Y. & Liang, Z. Solution processed organic thermoelectrics: towards flexible thermoelectric modules. Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 401–422 (2015).
Poehler, T. O. & Katz, H. E. Prospects for polymer-based thermoelectrics: state of the art and theoretical analysis. Energy Environ. Sci. 5, 8110–8115 (2012).
Yang, J. H., Yip, H. L. & Jen, A. K. Y. Rational design of advanced thermoelectric materials. Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 549–565 (2013).
Zhang, Q., Sun, Y., Xu, W. & Zhu, D. Organic thermoelectric materials: emerging green energy materials converting heat to electricity directly and efficiently. Adv. Mater. 26, 6829–6851 (2014).
Chabinyc, M. L., Schiltz, R. A. & Glaudell, A. M. in Innovative Thermoelectric Materials (eds Katz, H. E. & Poehler, T. O. ) (Imperial College Press, 2016).
Urban, J. J. & Coates, N. E. in Innovative Thermoelectric Materials (eds Katz, H. E. & Poehler, T. O. ) (Imperial College Press, 2016).
Moriarty, G. P., Briggs, K., Stevens, B., Yu, C. & Grunlan, J. C. Fully organic nanocomposites with high thermoelectric power factors by using a dual-stabilizer preparation. Energy Technol. 1, 265–272 (2013).
Kim, D., Kim, Y., Choi, K., Grunlan, J. C. & Yu, C. H. Improved thermoelectric behavior of nanotube-filled polymer composites with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene poly(styrenesulfonate). ACS Nano 4, 513–523 (2010).
Choi, K. & Yu, C. Highly doped carbon nanotubes with gold nanoparticles and their influence on electrical conductivity and thermopower of nanocomposites. PloS One 7, e44977 (2012).
Coates, N. E. et al. Effect of interfacial properties on polymer-nanocrystal thermoelectric transport. Adv. Mater. 25, 1629–1633 (2013).
Yee, S. K., Coates, N. E., Majumdar, A., Urban, J. J. & Segalman, R. A. Thermoelectric power factor optimization in PEDOT:PSS tellurium nanowire hybrid composites. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 4024–4032 (2013).
Ireland, R. M. et al. Effects of pulsing and interfacial potentials on tellurium–organic heterostructured films. ACS Appl. Mater. Interface 5, 1604–1611 (2013).
Ireland, R. M., Zhang, L. S., Gopalan, P. & Katz, H. E. Tellurium thin films in hybrid organic electronics: morphology and mobility. Adv. Mater. 25, 4358–4364 (2013).
Sinha, J., Ireland, R. M., Lee, S. J. & Katz, H. E. Synergistic thermoelectric power factor increase in films incorporating tellurium and thiophene-based semiconductors. MRS Commun. 3, 97–100 (2013).
Yu, C., Choi, K., Yin, L. & Grunlan, J. C. Light-weight flexible carbon nanotube based organic composites with large thermoelectric power factors. ACS Nano 5, 7885–7892 (2011).
Yu, C., Kim, Y. S., Kim, D. & Grunlan, J. C. Thermoelectric behavior of segregated-network polymer nanocomposites. Nano Lett. 8, 4428–4432 (2008).
Hardigree, J. F. M. et al. Reducing leakage currents in n-channel organic field-effect transistors using molecular dipole mono layers on nanoscale oxides. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 7025–7032 (2013).
Dun, C. et al. Layered Bi2Se3 nanoplate/polyvinylidene fluoride composite based n-type thermoelectric fabrics. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 7054–7059 (2015).
Hewitt, C. A. et al. Multilayered carbon nanotube/polymer composite based thermoelectric fabrics. Nano Lett. 12, 1307–1310 (2012).
Shakouri, A. Recent developments in semiconductor thermoelectric physics and materials. Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41, 399–431 (2011).
Beekman, M., Morelli, D. T. & Nolas, G. S. Better thermoelectrics through glass-like crystals. Nat. Mater. 14, 1182–1185 (2015).
Coropceanu, V. et al. Charge transport in organic semiconductors. Chem. Rev. 107, 926–952 (2007).
Bredas, J. L. & Street, G. B. Polarons, bipolarons, and solitons in conducting polymers. Acc. Chem. Res. 18, 309–315 (1985).
Anthony, J. E., Facchetti, A., Heeney, M., Marder, S. R. & Zhan, X. n-Type organic semiconductors in organic electronics. Adv. Mater. 22, 3876–3892 (2010).
Guo, X., Baumgarten, M. & Müllen, K. Designing π-conjugated polymers for organic electronics. Prog. Polym. Sci. 38, 1832–1908 (2013).
Holliday, S., Donaghey, J. E. & McCulloch, I. Advances in charge carrier mobilities of semiconducting polymers used in organic transistors. Chem. Mater. 26, 647–663 (2014).
Mei, J. & Bao, Z. Side chain engineering in solution-processable conjugated polymers. Chem. Mater. 26, 604–615 (2014).
Chabinyc, M. Thermoelectric polymers: behind organics' thermopower. Nat. Mater. 13, 119–121 (2014).
Heeger, A. J., Kivelson, S., Schrieffer, J. & Su, W.-P. Solitons in conducting polymers. Rev. Mod. Phys. 60, 781 (1988).
Noriega, R. et al. A general relationship between disorder, aggregation and charge transport in conjugated polymers. Nat. Mater. 12, 1038–1044 (2013).
Rivnay, J. et al. Large modulation of carrier transport by grain-boundary molecular packing and microstructure in organic thin films. Nat. Mater. 8, 952–958 (2009).
Venkateshvaran, D. et al. Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers. Nature 515, 384–388 (2014).
Mei, J. G., Kim, D. H., Ayzner, A. L., Toney, M. F. & Bao, Z. A. Siloxane-terminated solubilizing side chains: bringing conjugated polymer backbones closer and boosting hole mobilities in thin-film transistors. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 20130–20133 (2011).
Fabretto, M. V. et al. Polymeric material with metal-like conductivity for next generation organic electronic devices. Chem. Mater. 24, 3998–4003 (2012).
Heeger, A. J. Semiconducting and metallic polymers: the fourth generation of polymeric materials†. J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8475–8491 (2001).
Worfolk, B. J. et al. Ultrahigh electrical conductivity in solution-sheared polymeric transparent films. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112, 14138–14143 (2015).
Walzer, K., Maennig, B., Pfeiffer, M. & Leo, K. Highly efficient organic devices based on electrically doped transport layers. Chem. Rev. 107, 1233–1271 (2007).
Zaumseil, J. & Sirringhaus, H. Electron and ambipolar transport in organic field-effect transistors. Chem. Rev. 107, 1296–1323 (2007).
Anthopoulos T. D. Anyfantis G. C. Papavassiliou G. C. & de Leeuw D. M. Air-stable ambipolar organic transistors. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 122105 (2007).
de Leeuw, D. M., Simenon, M. M. J., Brown, A. R. & Einerhand, R. E. F. Stability of n-type doped conducting polymers and consequences for polymeric microelectronic devices. Synth. Met. 87, 53–59 (1997).
Nicolai, H. T. et al. Unification of trap-limited electron transport in semiconducting polymers. Nat. Mater. 11, 882–887 (2012).
Jung, B. J., Tremblay, N. J., Yeh, M.-L. & Katz, H. E. Molecular design and synthetic approaches to electron-transporting organic transistor semiconductors†. Chem. Mater. 23, 568–582 (2011).
Russ, B. et al. Power factor enhancement in solution-processed organic n-type thermoelectrics through molecular design. Adv. Mater. 26, 3473–3477 (2014).
Schlitz, R. A. et al. Solubility-limited extrinsic n-type doping of a high electron mobility polymer for thermoelectric applications. Adv. Mater. 26, 2825–2830 (2014).
Shi, H., Liu, C., Jiang, Q. & Xu, J. Effective approaches to improve the electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS: a review. Adv. Electron Mater. 1, 1500017 (2015).
Bubnova, O. et al. Optimization of the thermoelectric figure of merit in the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). Nat. Mater. 10, 429–433 (2011). This paper demonstrated routes for tuning the thermoelectric properties of PEDOT for optimal performance and demonstrated a first proof-of-principle OTE device.
Winther-Jensen, B. & West, K. Vapor-phase polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene: a route to highly conducting polymer surface layers. Macromolecules 37, 4538–4543 (2004).
Wei, P. et al. 2-(2-Methoxyphenyl)-1,3-dimethyl-1H-benzoimidazol-3-ium iodide as a new air-stable n-type dopant for vacuum-processed organic semiconductor thin films. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 3999–4002 (2012).
Guo, S. et al. n-Doping of organic electronic materials using air-stable organometallics. Adv. Mater. 24, 699–703 (2012).
Lussem, B., Riede, M. & Leo, K. Doping of organic semiconductors. Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 9–43 (2013).
Li, J. et al. Introducing solubility control for improved organic p-type dopants. Chem. Mater. 27, 5765–5774 (2015).
Qi, Y. et al. Solution doping of organic semiconductors using air-stable n-dopants. Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083305 (2012).
Chan, C. K., Kim, E. G., Brédas, J. L. & Kahn, A. Molecular n-type doping of 1,4,5,8-naphthalene tetracarboxylic dianhydride by pyronin B studied using direct and inverse photoelectron spectroscopies. Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 831–837 (2006).
Li, F. et al. Acridine orange base as a dopant for n doping of C60 thin films. J. Appl. Phys. 100, 23716–23900 (2006).
Li, F., Werner, A., Pfeiffer, M., Leo, K. & Liu, X. Leuco crystal violet as a dopant for n-doping of organic thin films of fullerene C60 . J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 17076–17082 (2004).
Naab, B. D. et al. Mechanistic study on the solution-phase n-doping of 1,3-dimethyl-2-aryl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzoimidazole derivatives. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 15018–15025 (2013).
Shi, K. et al. Toward high performance n-type thermoelectric materials by rational modification of BDPPV backbones. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 6979–6982 (2015).
Russ, B. et al. Tethered tertiary amines as solid-state n-type dopants for solution-processable organic semiconductors. Chem. Sci. 7, 1914–1919 (2016).
Cochran, J. E. et al. Molecular interactions and ordering in electrically doped polymers: blends of PBTTT and F4TCNQ. Macromolecules 47, 6836–6846 (2014).
Duong, D. T., Wang, C., Antono, E., Toney, M. F. & Salleo, A. The chemical and structural origin of efficient p-type doping in P3HT. Org. Electron. 14, 1330–1336 (2013).
Winokur, M. et al. X-ray scattering from sodium-doped polyacetylene: incommensurate–commensurate and order–disorder transformations. Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2329 (1987).
Winokur, M., Wamsley, P., Moulton, J., Smith, P. & Heeger, A. Structural evolution in iodine-doped poly (3-alkylthiophenes). Macromolecules 24, 3812–3815 (1991).
Tashiro, K., Kobayashi, M., Kawai, T. & Yoshino, K. Crystal structural change in poly(3-alkyl thiophene)s induced by iodine doping as studied by an organized combination of X-ray diffraction, infrared/Raman spectroscopy and computer simulation techniques. Polymer 38, 2867–2879 (1997).
Mai, C.-K. et al. Varying the ionic functionalities of conjugated polyelectrolytes leads to both p-and n-type carbon nanotube composites for flexible thermoelectrics. Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 2341–2346 (2015).
Mai, C.-K. et al. Side-chain effects on the conductivity, morphology, and thermoelectric properties of self-doped narrow-band-gap conjugated polyelectrolytes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 13478–13481 (2014).
Pingel, P. & Neher, D. Comprehensive picture of p-type doping of P3HT with the molecular acceptor F4TCNQ. Phys. Rev. B 87, 115209 (2013).
Xuan, Y. et al. Thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers: the case of poly (3-hexylthiophene). Phys. Rev. B 82, 115454 (2010).
Wang, Z., Li, C., Scherr, E., MacDiarmid, A. & Epstein, A. Three dimensionality of ‘metallic’ states in conducting polymers: polyaniline. Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1745 (1991).
Yoon, C. O. et al. Hopping transport in doped conducting polymers in the insulating regime near the metal–insulator boundary: polypyrrole, polyaniline and polyalkylthiophenes. Synth. Met. 75, 229–239 (1995).
Paloheimo, J., Laakso, K., Isotalo, H. & Stubb, H. Conductivity, thermoelectric-power and field-effect mobility in self-assembled films of polyanilines and oligoanilines. Synth. Met. 68, 249–257 (1995).
van de Ruit, K. et al. Quasi-one dimensional in-plane conductivity in filamentary films of PEDOT:PSS. Adv. Funct. Mater. 23, 5778–5786 (2013).
Wang, S., Ha, M., Manno, M., Frisbie, C. D. & Leighton, C. Hopping transport and the Hall effect near the insulator–metal transition in electrochemically gated poly(3-hexylthiophene) transistors. Nat. Commun. 3, 1210 (2012).
Epstein, A. et al. Inhomogeneous disorder and the modified Drude metallic state of conducting polymers. Synth. Met. 65, 149–157 (1994).
Kim, Y. H. et al. Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS electrode with optimized solvent and thermal post-treatment for ITO-free organic solar cells. Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 1076–1081 (2011).
Luo, J. et al. Enhancement of the thermoelectric properties of PEDOT:PSS thin films by post-treatment. J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 7576–7583 (2013).
DeLongchamp, D. M. et al. Influence of a water rinse on the structure and properties of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) films. Langmuir 21, 11480–11483 (2005).
Kim, G. H., Shao, L., Zhang, K. & Pipe, K. P. Engineered doping of organic semiconductors for enhanced thermoelectric efficiency. Nat. Mater. 12, 719–723 (2013).
Scholes, D. T. et al. Overcoming film quality issues for conjugated polymers doped with F4TCNQ by solution sequential processing: Hall effect, structural, and optical measurements. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 4786–4793 (2015).
Lazzaroni, R., Lögdlund, M., Stafström, S., Salaneck, W. R. & Brédas, J. L. The poly-3-hexylthiophene/NOPF6 system: a photoelectron spectroscopy study of electronic structural changes induced by the charge transfer in the solid state. J. Chem. Phys. 93, 4433–4439 (1990).
Lögdlund, M., Lazzaroni, R., Stafström, S., Salaneck, W. R. & Brédas, J. L. Direct observation of charge-induced π-electronic structural changes in a conjugated polymer. Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1841–1844 (1989).
Yim, K. H. et al. Controlling electrical properties of conjugated polymers via a solution-based p-type doping. Adv. Mater. 20, 3319–3324 (2008).
Bubnova, O. et al. Semi-metallic polymers. Nat. Mater. 13, 190–194 (2014). The first report of semi-metallic behaviour in an organic semiconductor resulting from the formation of bipolaron bands is presented in this work.
Aich, R. B., Blouin, N., Bouchard, A. & Leclerc, M. Electrical and thermoelectric properties of poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives. Chem. Mater. 21, 751–757 (2009).
Glaudell, A. M., Cochran, J. E., Patel, S. N. & Chabinyc, M. L. Impact of the doping method on conductivity and thermopower in semiconducting polythiophenes. Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1401072 (2015).
Zhang, F. J. et al. Modulated thermoelectric properties of organic semiconductors using field-effect transistors. Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 3004–3012 (2015).
Inabe, T. et al. Electronic structure of alkali metal doped C60 derived from thermoelectric-power measurements. Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3797–3799 (1992).
Wang, Z. H. et al. Electronic transport properties of KxC70 thin-films. Phys. Rev. B 48, 10657–10660 (1993).
Sumino M. et al. Thermoelectric properties of n-type C60 thin films and their application in organic thermovoltaic devices. Appl. Phys. Lett. 99 093308 (2011).
Sun, Y. M. et al. Organic thermoelectric materials and devices based on p- and n-type poly(metal 1,1,2,2-ethenetetrathiolate)s. Adv. Mater. 24, 932–937 (2012). The organometallic polymers presented in this study showcase organometallics as a promising class of high-performing p-type and n-type thermoelectric materials.
Kola, S. et al. Pyromellitic diimide–ethynylene-based homopolymer film as an n-channel organic field-effect transistor semiconductor. ACS Macro Lett. 2, 664–669 (2013).
Fritzsche, H. A general expression for the thermoelectric power. Solid State Commun. 9, 1813–1815 (1971).
Park, Y. W., Denenstein, A., Chiang, C. K., Heeger, A. J. & Macdiarmid, A. G. Semiconductor–metal transition in doped (CH)x: thermoelectric power. Solid State Commun. 29, 747–751 (1979).
Zhang, Q., Sun, Y. M., Xu, W. & Zhu, D. B. What to expect from conducting polymers on the playground of thermoelectricity: lessons learned from four high-mobility polymeric semiconductors. Macromolecules 47, 609–615 (2014).
Reghu, M., Cao, Y., Moses, D. & Heeger, A. J. Counterion-induced processibility of polyaniline: transport at the metal–insulator boundary. Phys. Rev. B 47, 1758–1764 (1993).
Yoon, C. O., Reghu, M., Moses, D. & Heeger, A. J. Transport near the metal–insulator-transition: polypyrrole doped with PF6 . Phys. Rev. B 49, 10851–10863 (1994).
Nogami, Y. et al. On the metallic states in highly conducting iodine-doped polyacetylene. Solid State Commun. 76, 583–586 (1990).
Kaiser, A. B. Electronic transport properties of conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes. Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1 (2001).
Kaiser, A. B. Thermoelectric-power and conductivity of heterogeneous conducting polymers. Phys. Rev. B 40, 2806–2813 (1989). This paper reported an early analysis of how thermopower and electrical conductivity can vary due to percolation in organic materials.
Massonnet, N. et al. Improvement of the Seebeck coefficient of PEDOT:PSS by chemical reduction combined with a novel method for its transfer using free-standing thin films. J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 1278–1283 (2014).
See, K. C. et al. Water-processable polymer–nanocrystal hybrids for thermoelectrics. Nano Lett. 10, 4664–4667 (2010). This study demonstrated that synergetic effects can be realized when rationally combining organic with inorganic thermoelectric materials, resulting in performance exceeding that of either of the individual components alone.
Massonnet, N., Carella, A., de Geyer, A., Faure-Vincent, J. & Simonato, J.-P. Metallic behaviour of acid doped highly conductive polymers. Chem. Sci. 6, 412–417 (2015).
Pernstich, K. P., Rossner, B. & Batlogg, B. Field-effect-modulated Seebeck coefficient in organic semiconductors. Nat. Mater. 7, 321–325 (2008).
Sun, J. et al. Simultaneous increase in Seebeck coefficient and conductivity in a doped poly(alkylthiophene) blend with defined density of states. Macromolecules 43, 2897–2903 (2010).
Urban, J. J. Prospects for thermoelectricity in quantum dot hybrid arrays. Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 997–1001 (2015).
He, M. et al. Thermopower enhancement in conducting polymer nanocomposites via carrier energy scattering at the organic–inorganic semiconductor interface. Energy Environ. Sci. 5, 8351–8358 (2012).
Zhou, C. et al. Nanowires as building blocks to fabricate flexible thermoelectric fabric: the case of copper telluride nanowires. ACS Appl. Mater. Interface 7, 21015–21020 (2015).
Ju, Y. S., Kurabayashi, K. & Goodson, K. E. Thermal characterization of anisotropic thin dielectric films using harmonic Joule heating. Thin Solid Films 339, 160–164 (1999).
Duda, J. C., Hopkins, P. E., Shen, Y. & Gupta, M. C. Exceptionally low thermal conductivities of films of the fullerene derivative PCBM. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 015902 (2013).
Wang, X., Liman, C. D., Treat, N. D., Chabinyc, M. L. & Cahill, D. G. Ultralow thermal conductivity of fullerene derivatives. Phys. Rev. B 88, 075310 (2013).
Wang, X., Ho, V., Segalman, R. A. & Cahill, D. G. Thermal conductivity of high-modulus polymer fibers. Macromolecules 46, 4937–4943 (2013).
Liu, J. et al. Thermal conductivity and elastic constants of PEDOT:PSS with high electrical conductivity. Macromolecules 48, 585–591 (2015).
Weathers, A. et al. Significant electronic thermal transport in the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). Adv. Mater. 27, 2101–2106 (2015).
Wei, Q., Mukaida, M., Kirihara, K. & Ishida, T. Experimental studies on the anisotropic thermoelectric properties of conducting polymer films. ACS Macro Lett. 3, 948–952 (2014).
Arias, A. C., MacKenzie, J. D., McCulloch, I., Rivnay, J. & Salleo, A. Materials and applications for large area electronics: solution-based approaches. Chem. Rev. 110, 3–24 (2010).
Rogers, J. A., Someya, T. & Huang, Y. Materials and mechanics for stretchable electronics. Science 327, 1603–1607 (2010).
Schwartz, G. et al. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring. Nat. Commun. 4, 1859 (2013).
Leonov, V. in Wearable Monitoring Systems (eds Bonfiglio, A. & De Rossi, D. ) 27–49 (Springer, 2011).
Sun, T., Peavey, J. L., David Shelby, M., Ferguson, S. & O'Connor, B. T. Heat shrink formation of a corrugated thin film thermoelectric generator. Energy Convers. Manage. 103, 674–680 (2015).
Goldsmid, H. (ed.) Thermoelectric Refrigeration (Springer, 2013).
Goupil, C., Seifert, W., Zabrocki, K., Müller, E. & Snyder, G. J. Thermodynamics of thermoelectric phenomena and applications. Entropy 13, 1481–1517 (2011).
Bahk, J.-H., Fang, H., Yazawa, K. & Shakouri, A. Flexible thermoelectric materials and device optimization for wearable energy harvesting. J. Mater. Chem. C 3, 10362–10374 (2015).
Owoyele, O., Ferguson, S. & O'Connor, B. T. Performance analysis of a thermoelectric cooler with a corrugated architecture. Appl. Energy 147, 184–191 (2015).
Fujifilm. Sustainability Report 2013, 18–19 (Fujifilm, 2013).
Kim, S. J., We, J. H. & Cho, B. J. A wearable thermoelectric generator fabricated on a glass fabric. Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 1959–1965 (2014).
Madan, D., Wang, Z., Wright, P. K. & Evans, J. W. Printed flexible thermoelectric generators for use on low levels of waste heat. Appl. Energy 156, 587–592 (2015).
Du, Y. et al. Thermoelectric fabrics: toward power generating clothing. Sci. Rep. 5, 6411 (2015).
Nonoguchi, Y. et al. Systematic conversion of single walled carbon nanotubes into n-type thermoelectric materials by molecular dopants. Sci. Rep. 3, 3344 (2013).
Yu, C. H., Murali, A., Choi, K. W. & Ryu, Y. Air-stable fabric thermoelectric modules made of n- and p-type carbon nanotubes. Energy Environ. Sci. 5, 9481–9486 (2012).
Søndergaard, R. R., Hösel, M., Espinosa, N., Jørgensen, M. & Krebs, F. C. Practical evaluation of organic polymer thermoelectrics by large-area R2R processing on flexible substrates. Energy Sci. Eng. 1, 81–88 (2013).
Tomlinson, E. P., Hay, M. E. & Boudouris, B. W. Radical polymers and their application to organic electronic devices. Macromolecules 47, 6145–6158 (2014).
Tomlinson, E. P., Willmore, M. J., Zhu, X., Hilsmier, S. W. A. & Boudouris, B. W. Tuning the thermoelectric properties of a conducting polymer through blending with open-shell molecular dopants. ACS Appl. Mater. Interface 7, 18195–18200 (2015).
Stavrinidou, E. et al. Direct measurement of ion mobility in a conducting polymer. Adv. Mater. 25, 4488–4493 (2013).
Wang, H., Ail, U., Gabrielsson, R., Berggren, M. & Crispin, X. Ionic Seebeck effect in conducting polymers. Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1500044 (2015).
Chang, W. B. et al. Harvesting waste heat in unipolar ion conducting polymers. ACS Macro Lett. 5, 94–98 (2016).
Chang, W. B. et al. Electrochemical effects in thermoelectric polymers. ACS Macro Lett. 5, 455–459 (2016).
Bell, L. E. Cooling, heating, generating power, and recovering waste heat with thermoelectric systems. Science 321, 1457–1461 (2008).
Onda, K., Masuda, T., Nagata, S. & Nozaki, K. Cycle analyses of thermoelectric power generation and heat pumps using the β′′-alumina electrolyte. J. Power Sources 55, 231–236 (1995).
Bian, Z. & Shakouri, A. Beating the maximum cooling limit with graded thermoelectric materials. Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 212101 (2006).
Snyder, G. J., Fleurial, J.-P., Caillat, T., Yang, R. & Chen, G. Supercooling of peltier cooler using a current pulse. J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1564–1569 (2002).
Zhang F. Zang Y. Huang D. Di C.-a. & Zhu D. Flexible and self-powered temperature–pressure dual-parameter sensors using microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric materials. Nat. Commun. 6 8356 (2015).
Yazawa, K. & Shakouri, A. Scalable cost/performance analysis for thermoelectric waste heat recovery systems. J. Electron. Mater. 41, 1845–1850 (2012).
Yee, S. K., LeBlanc, S., Goodson, K. E. & Dames, C. $ per W metrics for thermoelectric power generation: beyond ZT. Energy Environ. Sci. 6, 2561–2571 (2013). Important conceptual introduction of alternative metrics to ZT that may better capture the merits of using scalable, flexible thermoelectric devices.
Darian-Smith, I. in Comprehensive Physiology (Wiley, 2011).
Cho, C. et al. Completely organic multilayer thin film with thermoelectric power factor rivaling inorganic tellurides. Adv. Mater. 27, 2996–3001 (2015).
The authors acknowledge support from the AFOSR-MURI on Controlling Thermal and Electrical Transport in Organic and Hybrid Materials, AFOSR MURI FA9550-12-1-0002, as well as the Molecular Foundry, a LBNL user facility supported by the Office of Science, BES, US DOE, under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.
The authors declare no competing interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Russ, B., Glaudell, A., Urban, J. et al. Organic thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting and temperature control. Nat Rev Mater 1, 16050 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/natrevmats.2016.50
This article is cited by
Nanoscale Research Letters (2022)
Nature Communications (2022)
Nature Electronics (2022)
Nature Communications (2022)
Nature Communications (2022)