For crystalline metals, the science, technology and application of thermomechanical processing are established, but this is not true for glasses. Metallic glasses — because they can be plastically deformed — offer a unique opportunity to study the effects of thermomechanical treatments on the structure and properties of glasses. Depending on the rate of cooling, various glassy states can form from a liquid. Slower cooling gives states of lower enthalpy and smaller volume; such states might also be reached by annealing, which induces structural ‘relaxation’. A reduction in the degree of relaxation, or ‘rejuvenation’, is achievable through processes such as irradiation and mechanical deformation. In this Review, we explore the extent of relaxation and rejuvenation induced by thermomechanical processing (that is, elastic and plastic deformation, including cold and hot working, and cyclic loading). The issues that remain to be investigated and the prospects for further progress are discussed.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Synthesis, and characterization of metallic glassy Cu–Zr–Ni powders decorated with big cube Zr2Ni nanoparticles for potential antibiofilm coating applications
Scientific Reports Open Access 01 August 2022
Nature Communications Open Access 12 November 2021
Nature Communications Open Access 09 September 2021
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $9.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Klement, W., Willens, R. H. & Duwez, P. Non-crystalline structure in solidified gold–silicon alloys. Nature 187, 869–870 (1960).
Takeuchi, A. & Inoue, A. Classification of bulk metallic glasses by atomic size difference, heat of mixing and period of constituent elements and its application to characterization of the main alloying element. Mater. Trans. 46, 2817–2829 (2005).
Inoue, A. & Takeuchi, A. Recent development and application products of bulk glassy alloys. Acta Mater. 59, 2243–2267 (2011).
Greer, A. L. in Physical Metallurgy 5th edn Vol. 1 Ch. 4 (eds Laughlin, D. E. & Hono, K. ) 305–385 (Elsevier, 2014).
Wang, W. H. Bulk metallic glasses with functional physical properties. Adv. Mater. 21, 4524–4544 (2009).
Inoue, A. et al. Development and applications of Fe- and Co-based bulk glassy alloys and their prospects. J. Alloys Comp. 615, S2–S8 (2014).
Liebermann, H. H. The dependence of the geometry of glassy alloy ribbons on the chill block melt-spinning process parameters. Mater. Sci. Eng. 43, 203–210 (1980).
Ashby, M. F. & Greer, A. L. Metallic glasses as structural materials. Scripta Mater. 54, 321–326 (2006).
Xu, J. & Ma, E. Damage-tolerant Zr–Cu–Al-based bulk metallic glasses with record-breaking fracture toughness. J. Mater. Res. 29, 1489–1499 (2014).
Greer, A. L. New horizons for glass formation and stability. Nat. Mater. 14, 542–546 (2015).
Ren, S., Chen, D. & Zhao, X. Effect of ceramic rolling on the mechanical properties of Ti42.5Cu42.5Ni10Zr5 bulk metallic glass composite. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 646, 90–95 (2015).
Verlinden, B., Driver, J., Samajdar, I. & Doherty, R. D. Thermo-Mechanical Processing of Metallic Materials (Elsevier, 2007).
Wang, W. H. The elastic properties, elastic models and elastic perspectives of metallic glasses. Prog. Mater. Sci. 57, 487–656 (2012).
Weaire, D., Ashby, M. F., Logan, J. & Weins, M. J. On the use of pair potentials to calculate the properties of amorphous metals. Acta Metall. 19, 779–788 (1971).
Wang, G., Mattern, N., Pauly, S., Bednarcˇik, J. & Eckert, J. Atomic structure evolution in bulk metallic glass under compressive stress. Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251906 (2009).
Egami, T., Iwashita, T. & Dmowski, W. Mechanical properties of metallic glasses. Metals 3, 77–113 (2013). A comprehensive review of the fundamentals of elastic and plastic deformation in metallic glasses.
Egami, T. Atomic level stresses. Prog. Mater. Sci. 56, 637–653 (2011).
Kuršumovic´, A. & Cantor, B. Anelastic crossover and creep recovery spectra in Fe40Ni40B20 metallic glass. Scripta Mater. 34, 1655–1660 (1996).
Dmowski, W., Iwashita, T., Chuang, A., Almer, J. & Egami, T. Elastic heterogeneity in metallic glasses. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 205502 (2010).
Sun, Y. H., Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V., Ketov, S. & Greer, A. L. Pure shear stress reversal on a Cu-based bulk metallic glass reveals a Bauschinger-type effect. J. Alloys Comp. 615, S75–S78 (2014).
Spaepen, F. A microscopic mechanism for steady state inhomogeneous flow in metallic glasses. Acta Metall. 25, 407–415 (1977). A fundamental study of deformation mechanisms in metallic glasses, with an analysis based on free volume as the order parameter.
Greer, A. L., Cheng, Y. Q. & Ma, E. Shear bands in metallic glasses. Mater. Sci. Eng. R 74, 71–132 (2013). A comprehensive review of shear bands and an explanation of the concept of shear-band engineering to improve mechanical properties.
Johnson, W. L. & Samwer, K. A universal criterion for plastic yielding of metallic glasses with a (T/Tg)2/3 temperature dependence. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 195501 (2005).
Argon, A. S. Plastic deformation in metallic glasses. Acta Metall. 27, 47–58 (1979). A pioneering study that established the concept of the shear transformation zone as the flow unit in metallic glasses.
Schall, P., Weitz, D. A. & Spaepen, F. Structural rearrangements that govern flow in colloidal glasses. Science 318, 1895–1899 (2007).
Falk, M. L. & Langer, J. S. Dynamics of viscoplastic deformation in amorphous solids. Phys. Rev. E 57, 7192–7205 (1998).
Takeuchi, S. & Edagawa, K. Atomistic simulation and modeling of localized shear deformation in metallic glasses. Prog. Mater. Sci. 56, 785–816 (2011).
Falk, M. L. & Langer, J. S. Deformation and failure of amorphous, solidlike materials. Annu. Rev. Cond. Matter Phys. 2, 353–373 (2011).
Shang, B. S., Li, M. Z., Yao, Y. G., Lu, Y. J. & Wang, W. H. Evolution of atomic rearrangements in deformation in metallic glasses. Phys. Rev. E 90, 042303 (2014).
Krisponeit, J.-O. et al. Crossover from random three-dimensional avalanches to correlated nano shear bands in metallic glasses. Nat. Commun. 5, 3616 (2014).
Tao, P.-J. et al. Zr-based bulk metallic glass with super-plasticity under uniaxial compression at room temperature. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3742–3746 (2008).
Hebert, R. J. & Perepezko, J. H. Effect of cold-rolling on the crystallization behaviour of amorphous Al88Y7Fe5 alloy. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 375–377, 728–732 (2004).
Cao, Q. P. et al. Effect of pre-existing shear bands on the tensile mechanical properties of a bulk metallic glass. Acta Mater. 58, 1276–1292 (2010).
Takayama, S. Drawing of Pd77.5Cu6Si16.5 metallic glass wires. Mater. Sci. Eng. 38, 41–48 (1979).
Meng, F., Tsuchiya, K., Li, S. & Yokoyama, Y. Reversible transition of deformation mode by structural rejuvenation and relaxation in bulk metallic glass. Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121914 (2012). High-pressure torsion applied to a zirconium-based metallic glass has exerted the largest plastic strain and induced the highest stored energy of any study so far.
Cao, Y. et al. Laser shock peening on Zr-based bulk metallic glass and its effect on plasticity: experiment and modeling. Sci. Rep. 5, 10789 (2015).
Concustell, A., Méar, F. O., Suriñach, S., Baró, M. D. & Greer, A. L. Structural relaxation and rejuvenation in a metallic glass induced by shot-peening. Philos. Mag. Lett. 89, 831–840 (2009).
Yavari, A. R. et al. Excess free volume in metallic glasses measured by X-ray diffraction. Acta Mater. 53, 1611–1619 (2005).
Jiang, W. H., Pinkerton, F. E. & Atzmon, M. Mechanical behavior of shear bands and the effect of their relaxation in a rolled amorphous Al-based alloy. Acta Mater. 53, 3469–3477 (2005).
He, L. et al. Orientation effect of pre-introduced shear bands in a bulk-metallic glass on its ‘work-ductilising’. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 496, 285–290 (2008).
Liu, J. W., Cao, Q. P., Chen, L. Y., Wang, X. D. & Jiang, J. Z. Shear band evolution and hardness change in cold-rolled bulk metallic glasses. Acta Mater. 58, 4827–4840 (2010).
Song, K. K. et al. Significant tensile ductility induced by cold rolling in Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 bulk metallic glass. Intermetallics 19, 1394–1398 (2011).
Scudino, S., Jerliu, B., Surreddi, K. B., Kühn, U. & Eckert, J. Effect of cold rolling on compressive and tensile mechanical properties of Zr52.5Ti5Cu18Ni14.5Al10 bulk metallic glass. J. Alloys Comp. 509, S128–S130 (2011).
Yokoyama, Y., Yamano, K., Fukaura, K., Sunada, H. & Inoue, A. Ductility improvement of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 bulk amorphous alloy. Scripta Mater. 44, 1529–1534 (2001).
Lee, M. H. et al. Deformation-induced microstructural heterogeneity in monolithic Zr44Ti11Cu9.8Ni10.2Be25 bulk metallic glass. Phys. Stat. Solidi RRL 3, 46–48 (2009).
Zhang, Y., Wang, W. H. & Greer, A. L. Making metallic glasses plastic by control of residual stress. Nat. Mater. 5, 857–860 (2006).
Scudino, S. et al. Ductile bulk metallic glasses produced through designed heterogeneities. Scripta Mater. 65, 815–818 (2011).
Liu, Y., Schumacher, G., Riesemeier, H. & Banhart, J. Change in atomic coordination in a heavily deformed metallic glass. J. Appl. Phys. 115, 203510 (2014).
Waseda, Y., Aust, K. T. & Masumoto, T. Structural changes in amorphous Pd77Si17Cu6 due to cold rolling and low temperature annealing. Scripta Metall. 13, 187–190 (1979).
Haruyama, O. et al. Characterization of free volume in cold-rolled Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 bulk metallic glasses. Acta Mater. 61, 3224–3232 (2013).
Vempati, U. K., Valavala, P. K., Falk. M. L., Almer, J. & Hufnagel, T. C. Length-scale dependence of elastic strain from scattering measurements in metallic glasses. Phys. Rev. B 85, 214201 (2012).
Bever, M. B., Holt, D. L. & Titchener, A. L. The stored energy of cold work. Prog. Mater. Sci. 17, 5–177 (1972). A comprehensive review of the stored energy in the plastic deformation of crystalline alloys.
Hasan, O. A. & Boyce, M. C. Energy storage during inelastic deformation of glassy polymers. Polymer 34, 5085–5092 (1993).
Chen, H. S. Stored energy in a cold-rolled metallic glass. Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 328–330 (1976). An early study on the stored energy of cold work in a metallic glass.
Fecht, H. J., Hellstern, E., Fu, Z. & Johnson, W. L. Nanocrystalline metals prepared by high-energy ball milling. Metall. Trans. A 21A, 2333–2337 (1990).
Mehrtens, A., von Minnigerode, G., Oelgeschläger, D. & Samwer, K. Amorphization of the intermetallic compounds Co2Zr and Fe2Zr under mechanical grinding. Z. Phys. B 88, 25–34 (1992).
Grant, D. M., Green, S. M. & Wood, J. V. The surface performance of shot peened and ion implanted NiTi shape memory alloy. Acta Metall. Mater. 43, 1045–1051 (1995).
Busch, R., Schroers, J. & Wang, W. H. Thermodynamics and kinetics of bulk metallic glass. Mater. Res. Bull. 32, 620–623 (2007).
Battezzati, L., Riontino, G., Baricco, M., Lucci, A. & Marino, F. A. DSC study of structural relaxation in metallic glasses prepared with different quenching rates. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 61–62, 877–882 (1984).
Jessen, B. & Woldt, E. Stored energy of the deformed metallic glass Ni78Si8B14 . Thermochim. Acta 151, 179–186 (1989).
Bokeloh, J., Divinski, S. V., Reglitz, G. & Wilde, G. Tracer measurements of atomic diffusion inside shear bands of a bulk metallic glass. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 235503 (2011).
Jiang, W. H., Pinkerton, F. E. & Atzmon, M. Deformation-induced nanocrystallization: a comparison of two amorphous Al-based alloys. J. Mater. Res. 20, 696–702 (2005).
Pan, J., Chen, Q., Liu, L. & Li, Y. Softening and dilatation in a single shear band. Acta Mater. 59, 5146–5158 (2011).
Maaß, R., Samwer, K., Arnold, K. & Volkert, C. A. A single shear band in a metallic glass: local core and wide soft zone. Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171902 (2014).
Méar, F. O., Lenk, B., Zhang, Y. & Greer, A. L. Structural relaxation in a heavily cold-worked metallic glass. Scripta Mater. 59, 1243–1246 (2008).
González, S. et al. Influence of the shot-peening intensity on the structure and near-surface mechanical properties of Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 bulk metallic glass. Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 211907 (2013).
Méar, F. O., Doisneau, B., Yavari, A. R. & Greer, A. L. Structural effects of shot-peening in bulk metallic glasses. J. Alloys Comp. 483, 256–259 (2009).
Schroers, J. et al. Thermoplastic blow molding of metals. Mater. Today 14, 14–19 (2011).
Kumar, G., Tang, H. X. & Schroers, J. Nanomoulding with amorphous metals. Nature 457, 868–872 (2009).
Johnson, W. L. et al. Beating crystallization in glass-forming metals by millisecond heating and processing. Science 332, 828–833 (2011).
Way, C., Wadhwa, P. & Busch, R. The influence of shear rate and temperature on the viscosity and fragility of the Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5 metallic-glass-forming liquid. Acta Mater. 55, 2977–2983 (2007).
Demetriou, M. D. & Johnson, W. L. Shear flow characteristics and crystallization kinetics during steady non-isothermal flow of Vitreloy-1. Acta Mater. 52, 3403–3412 (2004).
Shao, Z. et al. Shear-accelerated crystallization in a supercooled atomic liquid. Phys. Rev. E 91, 020301(R) (2015).
Tong, Y. et al. Recovering compressive plasticity of bulk metallic glasses by high-temperature creep. Scripta Mater. 69, 570–573 (2013). A study showing that creep can induce rejuvenation in metallic glasses and can restore plasticity to samples embrittled by annealing.
Tong, Y. et al. Structural rejuvenation in bulk metallic glasses. Acta Mater. 86, 240–246 (2015).
Ichitsubo, T. et al. Microstructure of fragile metallic glasses inferred from ultrasound-accelerated crystallization in Pd-based metallic glasses. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 245501 (2005).
Wang, Y., Zhao, W., Li, G. & Liu, R. Effects of ultrasonic treatment on the structure and properties of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses. J. Alloys Comp. 544, 46–49 (2012).
Packard, C. E., Franke, O., Homer, E. R. & Schuh, C. A. Nanoscale strength distribution in amorphous versus crystalline metals. J. Mater. Res. 25, 2251–2263 (2010).
Packard, C. E., Homer, E. R., Al-Aqeeli, N. & Schuh, C. A. Cyclic hardening of metallic glasses under Hertzian contacts: experiments and STZ dynamics simulations. Philos. Mag. 90, 1373–1390 (2010). A demonstration that cyclic loading in the elastic range can induce a hardening effect in metallic glasses.
Al-Aqeeli, N. Strengthening behaviour due to cyclic elastic loading in Pd-based metallic glass. J. Alloys Comp. 509, 7216–7220 (2011).
Deng, C. & Schuh, C. A. Atomistic mechanisms of cyclic hardening in metallic glass. Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251909 (2012).
Cao, R., Deng, Y. & Deng, C. Hardening and crystallization in monatomic metallic glass during elastic cycling. J. Mater. Res. 30, 1820–1826 (2015).
El-Shabasy, A. B. & Lewandowski, J. J. Fatigue coaxing experiments on a Zr-based bulk-metallic glass. Scripta Mater. 62, 481–484 (2010).
Tong, P. et al. Structural irreversibility and enhanced brittleness under fatigue in Zr-based amorphous solids. Metals 2, 529–539 (2012).
Ye, J. C., Lu, J., Liu, C. T., Wang, Q. & Yang, Y. Atomistic free-volume zones and inelastic deformation of metallic glasses. Nat. Mater. 9, 619–623 (2010). A demonstration of hysteretic behaviour on cycling in the elastic range.
Wang, Z., Wen, P., Huo, L. S., Bai, H. Y. & Wang, W. H. Signature of viscous flow units in apparent elastic regime of metallic glasses. Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121906 (2012).
Caron, A., Kawashima, A., Fecht, H.-J., Louzguine-Luzguin, D. V. & Inoue, A. On the anelasticity and strain induced structural changes in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass. Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 171907 (2011).
Yu, H.-B., Wang, W.-H. & Samwer, K. The β relaxation in metallic glasses: an overview. Mater. Today 16, 183–191 (2013).
Tian, L. et al. Approaching the ideal elastic limit of metallic glasses. Nat. Commun. 3, 609 (2012).
Wang, Z. T., Pan, J., Li, Y. & Schuh, C. A. Densification and strain hardening of a metallic glass under tension at room temperature. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 135504 (2013).
Wang, Y., Zhao, W., Li, G., Li, Y. & Liu, R. Structural evolution of lanthanide-based metallic glasses under high pressure annealing. J. Alloys Comp. 551, 185–188 (2013).
Lee, S.-C., Lee, C.-M., Yang, J.-W. & Lee, J.-C. Microstructural evolution of an elastostatically compressed amorphous alloy and its influence on the mechanical properties. Scripta Mater. 58, 591–594 (2008).
Park, K. W. et al. Elastostatically induced structural disordering in amorphous alloys. Acta Mater. 56, 5440–5454 (2008).
Ke, H. B., Wen, P., Peng, H. L., Wang, W. H. & Greer, A. L. Homogeneous deformation of metallic glass at room temperature reveals large dilatation. Scripta Mater. 64, 966–969 (2011).
Lee, J.-C. Calorimetric study of β-relaxation in an amorphous alloy: an experimental technique for measuring the activation energy for shear transformation. Intermetallics 44, 116–120 (2014). A study on rejuvenation of metallic glasses by static loading in the elastic range.
Greer, A. L. & Sun, Y. H. Stored energy in metallic glasses due to strains within the elastic limit. Philos. Mag. 96, 1643–1663 (2016).
Gu, J., Song, M., Ni, S., Liao, X. & Guo, S. Improving the plasticity of bulk metallic glasses via pre-compression below the yield stress. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 602, 68–76 (2014).
Lee, C.-M., Park, K.-W. & Lee, J.-C. Plasticity improvement of a bulk amorphous alloy based on its viscoelastic nature. Scripta Mater. 59, 802–805 (2008).
Ketov, S. V. et al. Rejuvenation of metallic glasses by non-affine thermal strain. Nature 524, 200–203 (2015). This study shows that thermal cycling well below the glass-transition temperature can induce rejuvenation and can restore plasticity to samples embrittled by annealing.
Lacks, D. J. & Osborne, M. J. Energy landscape picture of overaging and rejuvenation in a sheared glass. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 255501 (2004).
Fiocco, D., Foffi, G. & Sastry, S. Oscillatory athermal quasistatic deformation of a model glass. Phys. Rev. E 88, 020301 (2013).
Fiocco, D., Foffi, G. & Sastry, S. Encoding of memory in sheared amorphous solids. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 025702 (2014).
Egami, T., Flanders, P. J. & Graham, C. D. Jr. Low-field magnetic properties of ferromagnetic amorphous alloys. Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 128–130 (1975).
Spilsbury, D., Butvin, P., Cowlam, N., Howells, W. S. & Cooper, R. J. Some evidence for ‘directional atomic pair ordering’ in a cobalt-based metallic glass. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 226–228, 187–191 (1997).
Tarumi, R. et al. Elastic anisotropy of an Fe79Si12B9 amorphous alloy thin film studied by ultrasound spectroscopy. J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053519 (2007).
Berry, B. S. & Pritchet, W. C. Magnetic annealing and directional ordering of an amorphous ferromagnetic alloy. Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1022–1025 (1975).
González, J., Vázquez, M., Barandiarán, J. M., Madurga, V. & Hernando, A. Different kinds of magnetic anisotropies induced by current annealing in metallic glasses. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 68, 151–156 (1987).
Arakawa, S. et al. in Rapidly Quenched Metals (eds Steeb, S. & Warlimont, H. ) 1389–1392 (North-Holland, 1985).
Concustell, A., Godard-Desmarest, S., Carpenter, M. A., Nishiyama, N. & Greer, A. L. Induced elastic anisotropy in a bulk metallic glass. Scripta Mater. 64, 1091–1094 (2011). A study that shows frozen-in anelastic strain and viscous flow lead to anisotropy of opposite sign.
Sun, Y. H. et al. Flow-induced elastic anisotropy of metallic glasses. Acta Mater. 112, 132–140 (2016).
Ott, R. T. et al. Anelastic strain and structural anisotropy in homogeneously deformed Cu64.5Zr35.5 metallic glass. Acta Mater. 56, 5575–5583 (2008).
Dmowski, W. & Egami, T. Structural anisotropy in metallic glasses induced by mechanical deformation. Adv. Eng. Mater. 10, 1003–1007 (2008). A structural study of induced anisotropy.
Ott, R. T., Kramer, M. J., Besser, M. F. & Sordelet, D. J. High-energy X-ray measurements of structural anisotropy and excess free volume in a homogenously deformed Zr-based metallic glass. Acta Mater. 54, 2463–2471 (2006).
Nielsen, O. V. & Nielsen, H. J. V. Magnetic anisotropy in Co73Mo2Si15B10 and (Co0.89Fe0.11)72Mo3Si15B10 metallic glasses, induced by stress-annealing. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 22, 21–24 (1980).
Nielsen, O. V., Hernando, A., Madurga, V. & Gonzalez, J. M. Experiments concerning the origin of stress anneal induced magnetic anisotropy in metallic glass ribbons. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 46, 341–349 (1985).
Suzuki, Y., Haimovich, J. & Egami, T. Bond-orientational anisotropy in metallic glasses observed by X-ray diffraction. Phys. Rev. B 35, 2162–2168 (1987).
Baumer, R. E. & Demkowicz, M. J. Radiation response of amorphous metal alloys: subcascades, thermal spikes and super-quenched zones. Acta Mater. 83, 419–430 (2015).
Mayr, S. G. Impact of ion irradiation on the thermal, structural, and mechanical properties of metallic glasses. Phys. Rev. B 71, 144109 (2005).
Zhang, H., Mei, X., Wang, Y., Wang, Z. & Wang, Y. Resistance to H+ induced irradiation damage in metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 . J. Nucl. Mater. 456, 344–350 (2015).
Xiao, Q., Huang, L. & Shi, Y. Suppression of shear banding in amorphous ZrCuAl nanopillars by irradiation. J. Appl. Phys. 113, 083514 (2013).
Huang, Y. et al. Structure and mechanical property modification of a Ti-based metallic glass by ion irradiation. Scripta Mater. 103, 41–44 (2015).
Carter, J. et al. Effects of ion irradiation in metallic glasses. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267, 1518–1521 (2009).
Nagase, T. et al. MeV electron irradiation induced crystallization in metallic glasses: atomic structure, crystallization mechanism and stability of an amorphous phase under the radiation. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358, 502–518 (2012).
Miglierini, M. & Hasiak, M. Impact of ion irradiation upon structure and magnetic properties of NANOPERM-type amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys. J. Nanomater. 2015, 175407 (2015).
Kramer, E. A., Johnson, W. L. & Cline, C. The effects of neutron irradiation on a superconducting metallic glass. Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 815–818 (1979).
Raghavan, R. et al. Ion irradiation enhances the mechanical performance of metallic glasses. Scripta Mater. 62, 462–465 (2010).
Avchaciov, K. A., Ritter, Y., Djurabekova, F., Nordlund, K. & Albe, K. Effect of ion irradiation on structural properties of Cu64Zr36 metallic glass. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 341, 22–26 (2014).
Gerling, R., Schimansky, F. P. & Wagner, R. Restoration of the ductility of thermally embrittled amorphous alloys under neutron-irradiation. Acta Metall. 35, 1001–1006 (1987). An important study showing that neutron irradiation can repeatedly restore plasticity in metallic glasses embrittled by thermal annealing. The damage level (displacements per atom) required to restore plasticity is characterized.
Ediger, M. D. & Harrowell, P. Perspective: supercooled liquids and glasses. J. Chem. Phys. 137, 080901 (2012).
Swallen, S. F. et al. Organic glasses with exceptional thermodynamic and kinetic stability. Science 315, 353–356 (2007).
Yu, H.-B., Luo, Y. & Samwer, K. Ultrastable metallic glass. Adv. Mater. 25, 5904–5908 (2013).
Aji, D. P. B. et al. Ultrastrong and ultrastable metallic glass. Preprint at http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.1575 (2013).
Wang, J. Q. et al. The ultrastable kinetic behavior of an Au-based nanoglass. Acta Mater. 79, 30–36 (2014).
Gleiter, H. Our thoughts are ours, their ends none of our own: are there ways to synthesize materials beyond the limitations of today? Acta Mater. 56, 5875–5893 (2008). An introduction and overview of the concept of ‘nanoglasses’.
Fang, J. X. et al. Atomic structure and structural stability of Sc75Fe25 nanoglasses. Nano Lett. 12, 458–463 (2012).
Wang, X. L. et al. Plasticity of a scandium-based nanoglass. Scripta Mater. 98, 40–43 (2015).
Franke, O., Leisen, D., Gleiter, H. & Hahn, H. Thermal and plastic behavior of nanoglasses. J. Mater. Res. 29, 1210–1216 (2014).
Wang, X. D. et al. Atomic-level structural modifications induced by severe plastic shear deformation in bulk metallic glasses. Scripta Mater. 64, 81–84 (2011).
Chen, N. et al. Formation and properties of Au-based nanograined metallic glasses. Acta Mater. 59, 6433–6440 (2011).
Ichitsubo, T., Matsubara, E., Anazawa, K. & Nishiyama, N. Crystallization accelerated by ultrasound in Pd-based metallic glasses. J. Alloys Comp. 434–435, 194–195 (2007).
Zhong, L., Wang, J., Sheng, H., Zhang, Z. & Mao, S. X. Formation of monatomic metallic glasses through ultrafast liquid quenching. Nature 512, 177–180 (2014).
Magagnosc, D. J. et al. Effect of ion irradiation on tensile ductility, strength and fictive temperature in metallic glass nanowires. Acta Mater. 74, 165–182 (2014).
Gallino, I., Schroers, J. & Busch, R. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the fragility of bulk metallic glass forming liquids. J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063501 (2010).
Donohue, A., Spaepen, F., Hoagland, R. G. & Misra, A. Suppression of the shear band instability during plastic flow of nanometer-scale confined metallic glasses. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241905 (2007).
Garner, F. A. Nuclear Materials Ch. 6 (ed. Frost, B. R. D. ) 436 (VCH, 1994).
Lu, J., Ravichandran, G. & Johnson, W. L. Deformation behavior of the Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 bulk metallic glass over a wide range of strain-rates and temperatures. Acta Mater. 51, 3429–3443 (2003).
Helgeson, M. E., Reichert, M. D., Hu, Y. T. & Wagner, N. J. Relating shear banding, structure, and phase behavior in wormlike micellar solutions. Soft Matter 5, 3858–3869 (2009).
Suryanarayana, C. Mechanical alloying and milling. Prog. Mater. Sci. 46, 1–184 (2001).
Tong, Y., Dmowski, W., Witczak, Z., Chuang, C.-P. & Egami, T. Residual elastic strain induced by equal channel angular pressing on bulk metallic glasses. Acta Mater. 61, 1204–1209 (2013).
Y.H.S. is supported by a China Scholarship Council (CSC) scholarship, and A.L.G. by the Engineering and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK, and the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI), MEXT, Japan. Please note that no new data were created in this study.
The authors declare no competing interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Sun, Y., Concustell, A. & Greer, A. Thermomechanical processing of metallic glasses: extending the range of the glassy state. Nat Rev Mater 1, 16039 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/natrevmats.2016.39
This article is cited by
Synthesis, and characterization of metallic glassy Cu–Zr–Ni powders decorated with big cube Zr2Ni nanoparticles for potential antibiofilm coating applications
Scientific Reports (2022)
Wettability and Interfacial Reactions Between Metallic Glass Melts and Cu/Mo Used as Roller Materials for Twin-Roll Casting
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters) (2022)
Unraveling the threshold stress of structural rejuvenation of metallic glasses via thermo-mechanical creep
Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy (2022)
Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy (2022)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica (2022)