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Semiconductor nanowire lasers

Abstract

The discovery and continued development of the laser has revolutionized both science and industry. The advent of miniaturized, semiconductor lasers has made this technology an integral part of everyday life. Exciting research continues with a new focus on nanowire lasers because of their great potential in the field of optoelectronics. In this Review, we explore the latest advancements in the development of nanowire lasers and offer our perspective on future improvements and trends. We discuss fundamental material considerations and the latest, most effective materials for nanowire lasers. A discussion of novel cavity designs and amplification methods is followed by some of the latest work on surface plasmon polariton nanowire lasers. Finally, exciting new reports of electrically pumped nanowire lasers with the potential for integrated optoelectronic applications are described.

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Figure 1: A brief timeline of laser discovery and development.
Figure 2: ZnO nanowire arrays formed the first nanowire laser cavities.
Figure 3: Calculated power plot of a hypothetical GaN laser with different values of β.
Figure 4: Nanowire lasers offer broad wavelength selection.
Figure 5: Creating a cleaved-coupled cavity nanowire laser.
Figure 6: Surface plasmon polaritons lead to further laser miniaturization.
Figure 7: Fabrication and characterization of electrically pumped nanowires lasers.

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Acknowledgements

Work performed at the University of California, Berkeley was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. DE-AC02-05CH11231 (PChem KC3103). Work performed at Arizona State University was supported by DARPA (W911NF-07-1-0314), AFOSR (Grant No FA9550-10-1-0444 under Gernot Pomrenke), and ARO (award no. W911NF-08-1-0471 and W911NF-13-1-0278, under M. Gerhold) and at Tsinghua University by the National 985 University Project. S.W.E. thanks the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation for funding (Award EP-14-151).

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Eaton, S., Fu, A., Wong, A. et al. Semiconductor nanowire lasers. Nat Rev Mater 1, 16028 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/natrevmats.2016.28

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