Figure 4

From: A paternal methyl donor-rich diet altered cognitive and neural functions in offspring mice

Figure 4

Grandpaternal exposure to a MD did not measurably affect learning and memory and hippocampal gene expression in F2 offspring mice. (a) Breeding scheme: male F1 offspring of MD and CD fathers were mated with CD F1 females to generate MD F2 and CD F2 offspring. (b and c) A probe trial performed after completion of training in a hidden version of the water maze revealed no obvious differences between MD F2 and CD F2 mice (CD F2, n=18 mice; MD F2, n=16 mice; (b), quadrant occupancy: two-way ANOVA with the between-subjects factor grandpaternal diet and the within-subjects factor quadrant: effect of grandpaternal diet, P=0.9141; effect of quadrant, P<0.0001; paternal diet × quadrant interaction, P=0.6842; (c), target crossings: two-way ANOVA with the between-subjects factor grandpaternal diet and the within-subjects factor quadrant: effect of grandpaternal diet, P=0.4356; effect of quadrant, P<0.0001; paternal diet × quadrant interaction, P=0.4648). Pool quadrants: TQ; AR; OQ; and AL. (d) MD F2 mice did not show measurably different freezing levels compared with CD F2 controls on a context test given 1 day after training in a contextual fear-conditioning task (CD F2, n=8 mice; MD F2, n=9 mice; t-test, P=0.5019). (e and f) qPCR-based quantification of hippocampal Mat2a and Kcnmb2 expression did not reveal measurable differences between MD F2 and CD F2 mice (n=12 mice per group; Mat2a: t-test, P=0.4044; Kcnmb2: t-test, P=0.7334). ANOVA, analysis of variance; AL, adjacent left; AR, adjacent right; CD, control diet; MD, methyl donor-rich diet; qPCR, quantitative PCR; OQ, opposite quadrant; TQ, target quadrant.