Clinical evidence suggests that mood and behavioral symptoms in premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a common, recently recognized, psychiatric condition among women, reflect abnormal responsivity to ovarian steroids. This differential sensitivity could be due to an unrecognized aspect of hormonal signaling or a difference in cellular response. In this study, lymphoblastoid cell line cultures (LCLs) from women with PMDD and asymptomatic controls were compared via whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) during untreated (ovarian steroid-free) conditions and following hormone treatment. The women with PMDD manifested ovarian steroid-triggered behavioral sensitivity during a hormone suppression and addback clinical trial, and controls did not, leading us to hypothesize that women with PMDD might differ in their cellular response to ovarian steroids. In untreated LCLs, our results overall suggest a divergence between mRNA (for example, gene transcription) and protein (for example, RNA translation in proteins) for the same genes. Pathway analysis of the LCL transcriptome revealed, among others, over-expression of ESC/E(Z) complex genes (an ovarian steroid-regulated gene silencing complex) in untreated LCLs from women with PMDD, with more than half of these genes over-expressed as compared with the controls, and with significant effects for MTF2, PHF19 and SIRT1 (P<0.05). RNA and protein expression of the 13 ESC/E(Z) complex genes were individually quantitated. This pattern of increased ESC/E(Z) mRNA expression was confirmed in a larger cohort by qRT-PCR. In contrast, protein expression of ESC/E(Z) genes was decreased in untreated PMDD LCLs with MTF2, PHF19 and SIRT1 all significantly decreased (P<0.05). Finally, mRNA expression of several ESC/E(Z) complex genes were increased by progesterone in controls only, and decreased by estradiol in PMDD LCLs. These findings demonstrate that LCLs from women with PMDD manifest a cellular difference in ESC/E(Z) complex function both in the untreated condition and in response to ovarian hormones. Dysregulation of ESC/E(Z) complex function could contribute to PMDD.
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We thank Cheryl Marietta, Longina Akhtar, Bani Mukhopadhyay and Elisa Moore of NIAAA for their technical assistance and expertise in conducting this study. We also thank Karla Thompson and Linda Schenkel of NIMH for their clinical support and data management, and Catherine Roca who initiated the PMDD genetics project and was responsible for collecting many of the samples employed in the replication sample for this study. Finally, we thank Dr. Shailaja Mani of Baylor College of Medicine for her guidance and consultation on this project. This work was written as part of Peter J. Schmidt’s official duties as a Government employee. This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIMH and NIAAA NIH; NIMH Protocols NCT00001259 and NCT00001322; and NIMH Project # MH002865; NIAAA Project # AA000301.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Supplementary Information accompanies the paper on the Molecular Psychiatry website
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Dubey, N., Hoffman, J., Schuebel, K. et al. The ESC/E(Z) complex, an effector of response to ovarian steroids, manifests an intrinsic difference in cells from women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Mol Psychiatry 22, 1172–1184 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2016.229
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