Table 3B Confounding effects of maternal psychiatric morbidity in ADHD cases compared with controls

From: Prenatal antidepressant exposure is associated with risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder but not autism spectrum disorder in a large health system

  ASD Controls   
  2243 5631 Model 1+severity measure a
Depression severity models % % Adjusted OR (95% CI)  
ADHD risk of antidepressant exposure during pregnancy not adjusted for depression severity variables (reference from Table 2B) 2.8 1.2 2.53 (1.73–3.69)***  
ADHD risk of antidepressant exposure during pregnancy adjusted for mental health treatments during pregnancy
 Distinct antidepressants (two or more) 0.8 0.4 2.01 (0.76–5.18)  
 Psychotherapy visits (one or more) 4.0 1.8 1.77 (0.74–4.06)  
 Psychotherapy visits (two or more) 2.5 0.9 1.75 (0.73–4.02)  
 Psychopharmacolgy visits (one or more) 1.2 0.5 1.73 (0.72–3.99)  
ADHD risk of antidepressant exposure during pregnancy adjusted for past psychiatric history
 Bipolar disorder 1.2 0.4 1.74 (0.72–4.04)  
 History of substance/alcohol abuse 7.0 3.1 1.79 (0.75–4.15)  
 Past suicide attempt 0.8 0.3 1.91 (0.81–4.36)  
 Schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder 0.5 0.1 1.93 (0.82–4.39)  
 Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 1.7 0.6 1.65 (0.68–3.85)  
 Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) 0.6 0.1 1.93 (0.82–4.39)  
 Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) 1.6 0.6 1.85 (0.78–4.25)  
 Depressive disorder (ICD-9 311) 8.2 4.6 1.72 (0.72–3.97)  
 Panic disorder 2.5 1.0 1.69 (0.70–3.91)  
 Any psychiatric history of the above or MDD 17.6 9.7 1.60 (0.66–3.71)  
  1. Abbreviations: ADHD, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; CI, confidence interval; MDD, Major Depressive Disorder; OR, odds ratio.
  2. aOdds ratio (95% confidence interval) of antidepressant exposure during pregnancy association with ADHD when adjusted by the severity measure in addition to Model 1 covariates; Significance at P<0.001 (***). Model 1 is adjusted for gender, race, birth year, insurance type, maternal age and median income tertile.