Table 1B Antepartum, intrapartum and neonatal history of children and parents in ASD, ADHD and matched control study groups

From: Prenatal antidepressant exposure is associated with risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder but not autism spectrum disorder in a large health system

  ASD a ASD controls a ASD vs matched controls b ADHD a ADHD controls a ADHD vs matched controls b
  1377 4022 Unadjusted Model 1 2243 5631 Unadjusted Model 1
    OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)    OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Mother prenatal c
 Adequacy of prenatal care Kotelcheck Index<adequate 9.3% 10.1% 0.92 (0.73–1.15)   0.84 (0.65–1.08)   10.9% 10.2% 1.08 (0.92–1.27)   0.94 (0.79–1.12)  
 Gestational diabetes 5.0% 4.4% 1.16 (0.87–1.53)   1.24 (0.91–1.67)   3.7% 3.4% 1.09 (0.84–1.42)   1.08 (0.80–1.44)  
 Pregnancy weight gain, pounds, (mean (s.d.)) 29.9 (12.1) 29.3 (12.9) 1.00 (1.00–1.01)   1.00 (1.00–1.01)   29.0 (12.5) 29.4 (13.2) 1.00 (0.99–1.00)   1.00 (1.00–1.00)  
Labor and delivery c
 C-section delivery 38.2% 31.0% 1.38 (1.21–1.56)***   1.28 (1.11–1.47)**   28.4% 29.7% 0.94 (0.84–1.04)   1.03 (0.91–1.15)  
 Induction of labor 17.5% 17.9% 0.97 (0.83–1.14)   0.98 (0.82–1.17)   17.3% 16.2% 1.09 (0.95–1.24)   1.14 (0.99–1.31)  
Neonatal c
Gestational age
20–32 weeks 3.2% 3.7% 0.86 (0.61–1.21)   0.91 (0.63–1.28)   3.6% 3.3% 1.07 (0.82–1.39)   1.05 (0.78–1.39)  
33–36 weeks 9.1% 8.4% 1.09 (0.87–1.34)   1.08 (0.85–1.37)   7.3% 7.0% 1.04 (0.85–1.25)   1.02 (0.83–1.25)  
37–43 weeks (reference) 87.7% 87.9% 0.98 (0.82–1.19)   0.98 (0.80–1.20)   89.2% 89.6% 0.95 (0.81–1.12)   0.97 (0.82–1.15)  
1-min Apgar<7 10.2% 9.0% 1.14 (0.93–1.40)   1.12 (0.89–1.39)   9.1% 9.1% 1.00 (0.84–1.18)   0.98 (0.81–1.17)  
5-min Apgar<7 1.7% 1.5% 1.13 (0.69–1.79)   1.07 (0.63–1.73)   1.7% 1.7% 0.99 (0.66–1.44)   0.96 (0.64–1.42)  
Birth weight
< 1500 g 2.4% 2.3% 1.05 (0.69–1.55)   1.14 (0.75–1.71)   90.0% 90.0% 0.99 (0.71–1.36)   1.01 (0.70–1.43)  
1500–2499 g 8.5% 7.9% 1.09 (0.87–1.35)   0.99 (0.77–1.26)   2.3% 2.3% 1.00 (0.83–1.20)   0.98 (0.80–1.19)  
2500+ g 89.1% 89.9% 0.92 (0.76–1.13)   0.97 (0.79–1.21)   7.7% 7.7% 1.00 (0.85–1.18)   1.01 (0.85–1.21)  
  1. Abbreviations: ADHD, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ASD, Autism Spectrum Disorder; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio.
  2. Values indicate percent of study group unless otherwise indicated.
  3. Unadjusted and adjusted risk of ASD or ADHD compared with ASD-matched controls.
  4. All variables were extracted from birth certificates; Significance at P<0.05 (*), <0.01 (**), <0.001 (***). Model 1 is adjusted for gender, race, birth year, insurance type, maternal age and median income tertile.