Table 1A Sociodemographic and medical history of children and parents in ASD, ADHD and matched control study groups

From: Prenatal antidepressant exposure is associated with risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder but not autism spectrum disorder in a large health system

  ASD a ASD controls a ASD vs matched controls b ADHD a ADHD controls a ADHD vs matched controls b
  1377 4022 Unadjusted Model 1 2243 5631 Unadjusted Model 1
    OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)    OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Child demographics
 Age at first ASD/ADHD diagnosis, years (mean (s.d.))c 5.1 (3.0) n/a n/a   n/a   8.3 (2.9) n/a n/a   n/a  
 Male gender 81.3% 81.6% 0.98 (0.84–1.15)   1.02 (0.86–1.21)   71.2% 73.5% 0.89 (0.80–1.00)*   0.87 (0.78–0.98)*  
Race
 White 71.5% 72.3% 0.96 (0.84–1.10)   1.02 (0.78–1.35)   66.3% 71.3% 0.79 (0.71–0.88)***   0.97 (0.78–1.22)  
 Black 6.5% 6.0% 1.09 (0.84–1.39)   1.02 (0.76–1.35)   7.1% 6.4% 1.11 (0.92–1.35)   0.89 (0.71–1.10)  
 Hispanic 11.5% 11.5% 1.00 (0.82–1.20)   0.95 (0.74–1.22)   18.5% 14.1% 1.38 (1.21–1.57)***   0.90 (0.75–1.07)  
 Asian 4.2% 4.0% 1.06 (0.78–1.43)   1.05 (0.74–1.45)   2.2% 2.5% 0.89 (0.64–1.23)   0.84 (0.59–1.19)  
 Other 6.3% 6.3% 1.01 (0.78–1.29)   0.98 (0.74–1.28)   5.9% 5.7% 1.05 (0.85–1.29)   1.03 (0.82–1.28)  
Median household income
 1st tertile (< $32 136) 33.3% 32.9% 1.02 (0.88–1.17)   1.17 (0.97–1.41)   38.4% 30.9% 1.40 (1.26–1.56)***   1.29 (1.11–1.51)**  
 2nd tertile ($32 136–41 820) 35.3% 32.2% 1.15 (1.00–1.32)*   1.07 (0.89–1.28)   33.4% 32.8% 1.03 (0.92–1.15)   0.94 (0.82–1.08)  
 3rd tertile (> $41 820) 31.4% 34.9% 0.85 (0.74–0.98)*   0.86 (0.71–1.04)   28.1% 36.3% 0.69 (0.61–0.77)***   0.77 (0.66–0.90)**  
 Multiple birth 7.9% 6.4% 1.25 (0.99–1.57)   1.16 (0.89–1.50)   4.9% 6.5% 0.75 (0.60–0.93)**   0.84 (0.66–1.05)  
Parent demographics
 Mother age at delivery, years (mean (s.d.)) 32.3 (5.4) 31.8 (5.4) 1.02 (1.01–1.03)**   1.03 (1.02–1.04)***   29.9 (6.6) 31.3 (5.5) 0.96 (0.95–0.97)***   0.97 (0.96–0.98)***  
 Father age at delivery, years (mean (s.d.)) 34.9 (6.7) 34.1 (6.2) 1.02 (1.01–1.03)***   1.02 (1.01–1.04)**   32.5 (7.2) 33.5 (6.1) 0.98 (0.97–0.98)***   0.99 (0.98–1.01)  
 Mother–government insurance 17.8% 15.4% 1.19 (1.01–1.40)*   1.29 (1.05–1.59)*   27.0% 17.7% 1.72 (1.53–1.93)***   1.41 (1.21–1.63)***  
 Mother, 4+ years of college 62.8% 66.0% 0.87 (0.77–0.99)*   0.86 (0.72–1.01)   46.6% 60.8% 0.56 (0.51–0.62)***   0.70 (0.62–0.80)***  
 Father, 4+ years of college 64.0% 66.3% 0.90 (0.79–1.03)   0.86 (0.72–1.02)   48.2% 62.4% 0.56 (0.50–0.62)***   0.64 (0.56–0.73)***  
Mother past medical history
 Diabetes 2.8% 2.4% 1.18 (0.80–1.72)   1.22 (0.80–1.82)   3.2% 2.4% 1.33 (0.99–1.77)   1.23 (0.90–1.67)  
 Chronic hypertension 1.3% 1.6% 0.82 (0.47–1.35)   0.74 (0.40–1.29)   1.5% 1.7% 0.88 (0.58–1.29)   0.89 (0.58–1.33)  
 Major depressive disorderc 9.3% 5.6% 1.72 (1.37–2.15)***   1.74 (1.35–2.23)***   8.2% 3.8% 2.25 (1.84–2.76)***   2.29 (1.84–2.85)***  
Parity
 1 62.1% 52.6% 1.48 (1.30–1.68)***   1.62 (1.41–1.87)***   56.8% 53.1% 1.16 (1.05–1.28)**   1.15 (1.03–1.28)*  
 2 28.6% 35.0% 0.74 (0.65–0.85)***   0.72 (0.62–0.84)***   33.2% 34.5% 0.94 (0.85–1.05)   0.96 (0.86–1.08)  
 3+ 9.2% 12.4% 0.72 (0.58–0.88)**   0.63 (0.50–0.80)***   10.0% 12.4% 0.78 (0.67–0.92)**   0.79 (0.66–0.94)**  
  1. Abbreviations: ADHD, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ASD, Autism Spectrum Disorder; CI, confidence interval; n/a, not applicable; OR, odds ratio.
  2. Values indicate percent of study group unless otherwise indicated.
  3. Unadjusted and adjusted risk of ASD or ADHD compared with ASD-matched controls.
  4. Child age of first ASD or ADHD diagnosis, child diagnosis and maternal history of major depression were extracted from electronic medical records. All other variables were extracted from birth certificates; Significance at P<0.05 (*), <0.01 (**), <0.001 (***). Model 1 is adjusted for gender, race, birth year, insurance type, maternal age and median income tertile.