Original Article | Published:

Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies six novel loci associated with habitual coffee consumption

Molecular Psychiatry volume 20, pages 647656 (2015) | Download Citation

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Abstract

Coffee, a major dietary source of caffeine, is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has received considerable attention regarding health risks and benefits. We conducted a genome-wide (GW) meta-analysis of predominately regular-type coffee consumption (cups per day) among up to 91 462 coffee consumers of European ancestry with top single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) followed-up in ~30 062 and 7964 coffee consumers of European and African-American ancestry, respectively. Studies from both stages were combined in a trans-ethnic meta-analysis. Confirmed loci were examined for putative functional and biological relevance. Eight loci, including six novel loci, met GW significance (log10Bayes factor (BF)>5.64) with per-allele effect sizes of 0.03–0.14 cups per day. Six are located in or near genes potentially involved in pharmacokinetics (ABCG2, AHR, POR and CYP1A2) and pharmacodynamics (BDNF and SLC6A4) of caffeine. Two map to GCKR and MLXIPL genes related to metabolic traits but lacking known roles in coffee consumption. Enhancer and promoter histone marks populate the regions of many confirmed loci and several potential regulatory SNPs are highly correlated with the lead SNP of each. SNP alleles near GCKR, MLXIPL, BDNF and CYP1A2 that were associated with higher coffee consumption have previously been associated with smoking initiation, higher adiposity and fasting insulin and glucose but lower blood pressure and favorable lipid, inflammatory and liver enzyme profiles (P<5 × 10−8).Our genetic findings among European and African-American adults reinforce the role of caffeine in mediating habitual coffee consumption and may point to molecular mechanisms underlying inter-individual variability in pharmacological and health effects of coffee.

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Acknowledgements

Study-specific funding and acknowledgments are provided in the Supplementary Information. We collectively thank everyone who has contributed to the collection, genotyping and analysis of the individual cohorts, as well as all the study participants.

Author information

Author notes

    • E M Byrne
    • , T Esko
    •  & M A Nalls

    These authors contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations

  1. Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

    • M C Cornelis
    • , D Mozaffarian
    • , G Curhan
    • , L R Pasquale
    • , A T Chan
    • , D J Hunter
    • , E B Rimm
    •  & F B Hu
  2. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA

    • M C Cornelis
    • , M Jensen
    • , D Mozaffarian
    • , E B Rimm
    • , F B Hu
    •  & P W Franks
  3. Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia

    • E M Byrne
  4. Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

    • T Esko
    • , K Fischer
    • , R Mägi
    • , L Milani
    • , E Mihailov
    •  & A Metspalu
  5. Division of Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, USA

    • T Esko
  6. Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

    • T Esko
  7. Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA

    • T Esko
  8. Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA

    • M A Nalls
  9. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska, Sweden

    • A Ganna
    • , P K E Magnusson
    •  & N L Pedersen
  10. Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

    • N Paynter
    • , L M Rose
    • , P M Ridker
    •  & D I Chasman
  11. Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

    • K L Monda
    • , G Heiss
    •  & K E North
  12. Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    • N Amin
    • , A Hofman
    • , M A Ikram
    • , H W Tiemeier
    • , A G Uitterlinden
    • , F J A van Rooij
    •  & C M van Duijn
  13. Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden

    • F Renstrom
    •  & P W Franks
  14. Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA

    • J S Ngwa
    • , L Xue
    •  & L A Cupples
  15. Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

    • V Huikari
    • , M Kaakinen
    •  & M-R Järvelin
  16. Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, UK

    • A Cavadino
    • , C Power
    •  & E Hyppönen
  17. Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

    • I M Nolte
    • , H Snieder
    •  & R P Stolk
  18. Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, Germany

    • A Teumer
  19. Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA

    • K Yu
    • , F Gu
    •  & N Caporaso
  20. Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland

    • P Marques-Vidal
  21. Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum-München, Munich-Neuherberg, Germany

    • R Rawal
    •  & C Gieger
  22. Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    • A Manichaikul
  23. Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Genetics, Division of Statistical Genomics, St Louis, MO, USA

    • M K Wojczynski
    •  & I B Borecki
  24. Department of Biological Psychology/Netherlands Twin Register, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    • J M Vink
    • , J L Treur
    • , J J Hottenga
    •  & D I Boomsma
  25. Medical Research Council (MRC) Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

    • J H Zhao
    • , J Luan
    • , N G Forouhi
    • , R J F Loos
    •  & N J Wareham
  26. Centre for Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology and the Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    • G Burlutsky
    • , J J Wang
    •  & P Mitchell
  27. Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

    • J Lahti
  28. Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland

    • J Lahti
    •  & J G Eriksson
  29. Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

    • V Mikkilä
  30. Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland

    • V Mikkilä
    •  & O Raitakari
  31. Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

    • R N Lemaitre
    • , B M Psaty
    •  & D S Siscovick
  32. Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

    • J Eriksson
    • , D Mellström
    • , M Lorentzon
    •  & C Ohlsson
  33. University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MI, USA

    • S K Musani
  34. Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, MD, USA

    • T Tanaka
    •  & L Ferrucci
  35. Statens Serum Institut, Department of Epidemiology Research, Copenhagen, Denmark

    • F Geller
    • , H A Boyd
    • , M Melbye
    •  & B Feenstra
  36. Busselton Population Medical Research Foundation Inc., Busselton, Western Australia, Australia

    • J Hui
    •  & J Beilby
  37. PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia

    • J Hui
    •  & J Beilby
  38. School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia

    • J Hui
    •  & J Beilby
  39. School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia

    • J Hui
  40. Harokopio University, Athens, Greece

    • M Dimitriou
    •  & G Dedoussis
  41. Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA

    • M E Garcia
    •  & T B Harris
  42. Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

    • W-K Ho
    • , K-T Khaw
    • , R N Luben
    • , J Danesh
    •  & D Saleheen
  43. QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Queensland, Australia

    • M J Wright
    • , G W Montgomery
    •  & N G Martin
  44. Department of Biostatistics, University of NC at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

    • D Couper
  45. Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    • B A Oostra
  46. Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    • M A Ikram
  47. Department of Neurology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    • M A Ikram
  48. Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    • H W Tiemeier
  49. Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    • A G Uitterlinden
  50. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK

    • I Barroso
    •  & P Deloukas
  51. University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories and NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge, UK

    • I Barroso
  52. Department of Odontology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

    • I Johansson
  53. Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

    • M Kaakinen
    •  & M-R Järvelin
  54. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC Health Protection Agency (HPE) Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, UK

    • M Kaakinen
    •  & M-R Järvelin
  55. Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Germany

    • S E Baumeister
  56. Department of Prosthodontics, Gerodontology and Biomaterials, Center of Oral Health, University Medicine Greifswald, Germany

    • R Biffar
  57. Department of Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

    • F Bastardot
    •  & P Vollenweider
  58. Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

    • Z Kutalik
  59. Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland

    • Z Kutalik
  60. Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland

    • Z Kutalik
  61. Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

    • D R Jacobs Jr
  62. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

    • L Lind
    •  & E Ingelsson
  63. Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

    • C Lindgren
    • , A Morris
    • , I Prokopenko
    •  & E Ingelsson
  64. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

    • K Michaëlsson
  65. Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

    • S Männistö
    •  & M-M Perälä
  66. Department of Clinical Physiology, Tampere University Hospital and School of Medicine University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland

    • M Kähönen
  67. Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories, and School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland

    • T Lehtimäki
  68. Department of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland

    • J Viikari
  69. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA

    • D Mozaffarian
    • , E B Rimm
    •  & F B Hu
  70. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA

    • D Mozaffarian
  71. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA

    • K Mukamal
  72. Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

    • B M Psaty
    •  & D S Siscovick
  73. Department of Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

    • B M Psaty
  74. Group Health Research Institute, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA

    • B M Psaty
  75. Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum-München, Munich-Neuherberg, Germany

    • A Döring
  76. Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA

    • A C Heath
  77. Department for Psychiatry, Johannes-Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany

    • N Dahmen
  78. School of Applied Sciences, University of Mississippi, Oxford, Mississippi, USA

    • T Carithers
  79. Clinical Laboratory and Nutritional Sciences, University of MA Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA

    • K L Tucker
  80. Department of Genomics of Common Diseases, Imperial College London, London, UK

    • I Prokopenko
  81. Medical Department, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

    • A Tönjes
    •  & M Stumvoll
  82. IFB Adiposity Diseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

    • A Tönjes
    •  & M Stumvoll
  83. William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

    • P Deloukas
    •  & S Kanoni
  84. King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    • P Deloukas
  85. Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    • D K Houston
  86. Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    • Y Liu
  87. Center for Non-Communicable Diseases, Pakistan

    • A Rasheed
    •  & D Saleheen
  88. Health Disparities Research Section, Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, MD, USA

    • M A Mason
    •  & M K Evans
  89. Laboratory of Personality and Cognition, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, MD, USA

    • A B Zonderman
  90. Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

    • L Franke
    • , J Karjalainen
    •  & H-J Westra
  91. Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

    • B S Kristal
  92. Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

    • B S Kristal
  93. Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

    • D R Reed
  94. Mass Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA

    • L R Pasquale
  95. Geriatric Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Firenze, Florence, Italy

    • S Bandinelli
  96. Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA

    • J M Ordovas
  97. Division of Gastroenterology, MA General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

    • A T Chan
  98. Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA

    • U Peters
    •  & M L Neuhouser
  99. Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum-München, Munich-Neuherberg, Germany

    • M Waldenberger
  100. Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland

    • O Raitakari
  101. Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

    • J G Eriksson
  102. Helsinki University Central Hospital, Unit of General Practice, Helsinki, Finland

    • J G Eriksson
  103. Program in Genetic Epidemiology and Statistical Genetics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA

    • D J Hunter
    •  & P Kraft
  104. The Genetics of Obesity and Related Metabolic Traits Program, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA

    • R J F Loos
  105. The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA

    • R J F Loos
  106. Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, HELIOS Hospital Stralsund, Germany

    • H J Grabe
  107. Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

    • B H R Wolffenbuttel
  108. School of Population Health, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

    • E Hyppönen
  109. South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

    • E Hyppönen
  110. Department of Children and Young People and Families, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland

    • M-R Järvelin
  111. Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland

    • M-R Järvelin
  112. The Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA

    • L A Cupples
  113. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section for Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

    • P W Franks
  114. Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Ageing and National Genomics Initiative, Leiden, The Netherlands

    • C M van Duijn
  115. Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA

    • J A Nettleton
  116. Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health and Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore

    • R M van Dam

Consortia

  1. The Coffee and Caffeine Genetics Consortium

  2. International Parkinson's Disease Genomics Consortium (IPDGC)

  3. North American Brain Expression Consortium (NABEC)

  4. UK Brain Expression Consortium (UKBEC)

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Competing interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to M C Cornelis or D I Chasman.

Supplementary information

Appendices

APPENDIX

The members and affiliations of the International Parkinson Disease Genomics Consortium (IPDGC) are as follows: Michael A Nalls (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA), Vincent Plagnol (UCL Genetics Institute, London, UK), Dena G Hernandez (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging; and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK), Manu Sharma (Department for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, and DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Tübingen, Germany), Una-Marie Sheerin (Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology), Mohamad Saad (INSERM U563, CPTP, Toulouse, France; and Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, France), Javier Simón-Sánchez (Department of Clinical Genetics, Section of Medical Genomics, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, Netherlands), Claudia Schulte (Department for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research), Suzanne Lesage (INSERM, UMR_S975 (formerly UMR_S679), Paris, France; Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, Centre de Recherche de l’Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière, Paris, France; and CNRS, Paris, France), Sigurlaug Sveinbjörnsdóttir (Department of Neurology, Landspítali University Hospital, Reykjavík, Iceland; Department of Neurology, MEHT Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, Essex, UK; and Queen Mary College, University of London, London, UK), Sampath Arepalli (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging), Roger Barker (Department of Neurology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK), Yoav Ben-Shlomo (School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol), Henk W Berendse (Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Center, VU University Medical Center), Daniela Berg (Department for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research and DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative diseases), Kailash Bhatia (Department of Motor Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology), Rob M A de Bie (Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands), Alessandro Biffi (Center for Human Genetic Research and Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; and Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA), Bas Bloem (Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands), Zoltan Bochdanovits (Department of Clinical Genetics, Section of Medical Genomics, VU University Medical Centre), Michael Bonin (Department of Medical Genetics, Institute of Human Genetics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany), Jose M Bras (Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology), Kathrin Brockmann (Department for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research and DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative diseases), Janet Brooks (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging), David J Burn (Newcastle University Clinical Ageing Research Unit, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK), Gavin Charlesworth (Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology), Honglei Chen (Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, NC, USA), Patrick F Chinnery (Neurology M4104, The Medical School, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK), Sean Chong (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging), Carl E Clarke (School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; and Department of Neurology, City Hospital, Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust, Birmingham, UK), Mark R Cookson (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging), J Mark Cooper (Department of Clinical Neurosciences, UCL Institute of Neurology), Jean Christophe Corvol (INSERM, UMR_S975; Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris; CNRS; and INSERM CIC-9503, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France), Carl Counsell (University of Aberdeen, Division of Applied Health Sciences, Population Health Section, Aberdeen, UK), Philippe Damier (CHU Nantes, CIC0004, Service de Neurologie, Nantes, France), Jean-François Dartigues (INSERM U897, Université Victor Segalen, Bordeaux, France), Panos Deloukas (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, UK), Günther Deuschl (Klinik für Neurologie, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Kiel, Germany), David T Dexter (Parkinson’s Disease Research Group, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK), Karin D van Dijk (Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Center, VU University Medical Center), Allissa Dillman (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging), Frank Durif (Service de Neurologie, Hôpital Gabriel Montpied, Clermont-Ferrand, France), Alexandra Dürr (INSERM, UMR_S975; Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris; CNRS; and AP-HP, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital), Sarah Edkins (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute), Jonathan R Evans (Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, Cambridge, UK), Thomas Foltynie (UCL Institute of Neurology), Jing Dong (Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences), Michelle Gardner (Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology), J Raphael Gibbs (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging; and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology), Alison Goate (Department of Psychiatry, Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, MI, USA), Emma Gray (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute), Rita Guerreiro (Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology), Clare Harris (University of Aberdeen), Jacobus J van Hilten (Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands), Albert Hofman (Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands), Albert Hollenbeck (AARP, Washington DC, USA), Janice Holton (Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology), Michele Hu (Department of Clinical Neurology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK), Xuemei Huang (Departments of Neurology, Radiology, Neurosurgery, Pharmacology, Kinesiology, and Bioengineering, Pennsylvania State University– Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA), Isabel Wurster (Department for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research and German Center for Neurodegenerative diseases), Walter Mätzler (Department for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research and German Center for Neurodegenerative diseases), Gavin Hudson (Neurology M4104, The Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK), Sarah E Hunt (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute), Johanna Huttenlocher (deCODE genetics), Thomas Illig (Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany), Pálmi V Jónsson (Department of Geriatrics, Landspítali University Hospital, Reykjavík, Iceland), Jean-Charles Lambert (INSERM U744, Lille, France; and Institut Pasteur de Lille, Université de Lille Nord, Lille, France), Cordelia Langford (Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair), Andrew Lees (Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders), Peter Lichtner (Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany), Patricia Limousin (Institute of Neurology, Sobell Department, Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, London, UK), Grisel Lopez (Section on Molecular Neurogenetics, Medical Genetics Branch, NHGRI, National Institutes of Health), Delia Lorenz (Klinik für Neurologie, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein), Alisdair McNeill (Department of Clinical Neurosciences, UCL Institute of Neurology), Catriona Moorby (School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham), Matthew Moore (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging), Huw R Morris (MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK), Karen E Morrison (School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham; and Neurosciences Department, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK), Ese Mudanohwo (Neurogenetics Unit, UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery), Sean S O’Sullivan (Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders), Justin Pearson (MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics), Joel S Perlmutter (Department of Neurology, Radiology, and Neurobiology at Washington University, St Louis), Hjörvar Pétursson (deCODE genetics; and Department of Medical Genetics, Institute of Human Genetics, University of Tübingen), Pierre Pollak (Service de Neurologie, CHU de Grenoble, Grenoble, France), Bart Post (Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre), Simon Potter (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute), Bernard Ravina (Translational Neurology, Biogen Idec, MA, USA), Tamas Revesz (Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders), Olaf Riess (Department of Medical Genetics, Institute of Human Genetics, University of Tübingen), Fernando Rivadeneira (Departments of Epidemiology and Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center), Patrizia Rizzu (Department of Clinical Genetics, Section of Medical Genomics, VU University Medical Centre), Mina Ryten (Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology), Stephen Sawcer (University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Addenbrooke’s hospital, Cambridge, UK), Anthony Schapira (Department of Clinical Neurosciences, UCL Institute of Neurology), Hans Scheffer (Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands), Karen Shaw (Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders), Ira Shoulson (Department of Neurology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA), Ellen Sidransky (Section on Molecular Neurogenetics, Medical Genetics Branch, NHGRI), Colin Smith (Department of Pathology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK), Chris CA Spencer (Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford, UK), Hreinn Stefánsson (deCODE genetics), Francesco Bettella (deCODE genetics), Joanna D Stockton (School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine), Amy Strange (Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics), Kevin Talbot (University of Oxford, Department of Clinical Neurology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK), Carlie M Tanner (Clinical Research Department, The Parkinson’s Institute and Clinical Center, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), Avazeh Tashakkori-Ghanbaria (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute), François Tison (Service de Neurologie, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Pessac, France), Daniah Trabzuni (Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology), Bryan J Traynor (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging), André G Uitterlinden (Departments of Epidemiology and Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center), Daan Velseboer (Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center), Marie Vidailhet (INSERM, UMR_S975, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, CNRS, UMR 7225), Robert Walker (Department of Pathology, University of Edinburgh), Bart van de Warrenburg (Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre), Mirdhu Wickremaratchi (Department of Neurology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK), Nigel Williams (MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics), Caroline H Williams-Gray (Department of Neurology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital), Sophie Winder-Rhodes (Department of Psychiatry and Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences Institute, University of Cambridge), Kári Stefánsson (deCODE genetics), Maria Martinez (INSERM UMR 1043; and Paul Sabatier University), Nicholas W Wood (UCL Genetics Institute; and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology), John Hardy (Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology), Peter Heutink (Department of Clinical Genetics, Section of Medical Genomics, VU University Medical Centre), Alexis Brice (INSERM, UMR_S975, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, CNRS, UMR 7225, AP-HP, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital), Thomas Gasser (Department for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, and DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases), Andrew B Singleton (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging).

The members and affiliations of the North American Brain Expression Consortium (NABEC) are as follows: Andrew Singleton (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA); Mark Cookson (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA); J. Raphael Gibbs (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA and Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK); Dena Hernandez (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA and Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK); Allissa Dillman (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA and Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden); Michael Nalls (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA) Alan Zonderman (Research Resources Branch, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA); Sampath Arepalli (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA); Luigi Ferrucci (Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD, USA); Robert Johnson (NICHD Brain and Tissue Bank for Developmental Disorders, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA); Dan Longo (Lymphocyte Cell Biology Unit, Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA); Richard O'Brien (Brain Resource Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA); Bryan Traynor (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA); Juan Troncoso (Brain Resource Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA); Marcel van der Brug (Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA and ITGR Biomarker Discovery Group, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA); Ronald Zielke (NICHD Brain and Tissue Bank for Developmental Disorders, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA).

The members and affiliations of the United Kingdom Brain Expression Consortium are as follows (UKBEC): John Hardy (Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK); Michael Weale (Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King’s College London, 8th Floor, Tower Wing, Guy’s Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK); Mina Ryten (Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK); Adaikalavan Ramasamy (Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King’s College London, 8th Floor, Tower Wing, Guy’s Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK and Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK); Daniah Trabzuni (Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK and Department of Genetics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, PO Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia); Colin Smith (Department of Neuropathology, MRC Sudden Death Brain Bank Project, University of Edinburgh, Wilkie Building, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG); Robert Walker (Department of Neuropathology, MRC Sudden Death Brain Bank Project, University of Edinburgh, Wilkie Building, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG).

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2014.107

Supplementary Information accompanies the paper on the Molecular Psychiatry website (http://www.nature.com/mp)