Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Independence of Mania and Depression

Evidence for separate inheritance of mania and depression challenges current concepts of bipolar mood disorder

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1


  1. Merikangas KR, Cui L, Heaton L, Nakamura E, Roca C, Ding J et al Independence of familial transmission of mania and depression: results of the NIMH family study of affective spectrum disorders. Mol Psychiatry advance online publication, 15 October 2013; doi:10.1038/mp.2013.116 (e-pub ahead of print).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Vandeleur CL, Merikangas KR, Strippoli M-PF, Castelao E, Preisig M . Specificity of psychosis, mania and major depression in a contemporary family study. Mol Psychiatry advance online publication, 15 October 2013; doi:10.1038/mp.2013.132 (e-pub ahead of print).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Goldberg DP, Andrews G, Hobbs MJ . Where should bipolar disorder appear in the meta-structure? Psychol Med 2009; 39: 2071–2081.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Lichtenstein P, Yip BH, Bjork C, Pawitan Y, Cannon TD, Sullivan PF et al Common genetic determinants of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Swedish families: a population-based study. Lancet 2009; 373: 234–239.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Lee SH, Ripke S, Neale BM, Faraone SV, Purcell SM, Perlis RH et al Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs. Nat Genet 2013; 45: 984–994.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Merikangas KR, Cui L, Kattan G, Carlson GA, Youngstrom EA, Angst J . Mania with and without depression in a community sample of U.S. adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012; 69: 943–951.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Angst J, Hengartner MP, Gamma A, von Zerssen D, Angst F . Mortality of 403 patients with mood disorders 48 to 52 years after their psychiatric hospitalisation. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2013; 263: 425–434.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. McGuffin P, Rijsdijk F, Andrew M, Sham P, Katz R, Cardno A . The heritability of bipolar affective disorder and the genetic relationship to unipolar depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60: 497–502.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Maier W, Lichtermann D, Minges J, Hallmayer J, Heun R, Benkert O et al Continuity and discontinuity of affective disorders and schizophrenia: results of a controlled family study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993; 50: 871–883.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Hickie IB, Naismith SL, Robillard R, Scott EM, Hermens DF Manipulating the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms to improve clinical management of major depression. BMC Medicine 2013; 11: 79.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to I B Hickie.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

IBH is a Senior Principal Research Fellow of the Australian National Health & Medical Research Council (AppID 1046899). He was a director of headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation until January 2012. He is the executive director of the Brain and Mind Research Institute (BMRI), at the University of Sydney, which operates two early-intervention youth services under contract to headspace. He is a commissioner of the Australian National Mental Health commission and was previously the CEO of beyondblue: the National Depression Initiative. Previously, he has led a range of community-based and pharmaceutical industry-supported depression awareness and education and training programs. He has led depression and other mental health research service evaluation or investigator-initiated research projects that have been supported by a variety of pharmaceutical partners. Current investigator-initiated studies are supported by Servier (manufacturers of Agomelatine) and Pfizer. He has received honoraria for his contributions to professional educational seminars related to depression, youth mental health and circadian-rhythms research. He has received travel support from Servier to attend scientific meetings related specifically to circadian-rhythm disorders.

PowerPoint slides

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hickie, I. Evidence for separate inheritance of mania and depression challenges current concepts of bipolar mood disorder. Mol Psychiatry 19, 153–155 (2014).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Further reading


Quick links