Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Cerebral folate receptor autoantibodies in autism spectrum disorder

  Autoantibody negative (n=23) Autoantibody positive (n=70)
Age 8 years 4 months 6 years 8 months*
Male % 96 89
Family history
 Multiple mischarges 20% 7%
 Neural tube defects 0% 1%
 Prematurity 15% 3%
 ADHD 25% 28%
 ASD 10% 24%
 Learning disabilities 40% 33%
 Anemia 20% 6%
 Autoimmune disease 60% 24%**
 Neurological disorder 30% 40%
 Psychiatric disorder 35% 46%
Spectrum diagnosis
 PDD-NOS 43% 34%
 Autistic disorder 52% 64%
 Asperger 4% 1%
Developmental profile
 Early delay 57% 64%
 Regression 57% 49%
 Stagnation 22% 9%
 Late symptoms 9% 13%
Regression type
 Abrupt 62% 65%
 Very slow 38% 18%
 Gradual 0% 17%
Medical diagnosis
 Prematurity 13% 9%
 Cerebral palsy 0% 0%
 Sensory integration disorder 22% 20%
 Hypothyroidism 11% 37%
 ADHD 22% 17%
 Mitochondrial disease 43% 31%
 Genetic disorder 0% 4%
Growth disorders
 Failure to thrive 9% 10%
 Accelerated growth 0% 4%
 Microcephaly 0% 1%
 Macrocephaly 9% 4%
Neurological disorders
 Epilepsy 39% 30%
 Ataxia 4% 6%
 Hypotonia 30% 41%
 Hypertonia 5% 2%
 Nystagmus 9% 1%
 Hearing loss 0% 4%
 Visual loss 4% 1%
Gastrointestinal disorders
 Diarrhea 35% 41%
 Constipation 39% 36%
 Gastroesophageal reflux 13% 14%
 Inflammation 39% 23%
 Dysbiosis 30% 29%
 Lymphoid nodular hyperplasia 4% 3%
Sleep disorders
 Insomnia 39% 23%
 Poor sleep maintenance 43% 41%
 Apnea 4% 3%
 Periodic leg movement during sleep 0% 3%
Diagnostic tests
 Electroencephalogram
Normal 53% 75%
Epileptiform 35% 20%
Slowing 12% 5%
 Abnormal magnetic resonance imaging 27% 13%
Response to treatments
 GFCF diet (n=30) 88% 86%
 Milk-free diet (n=25) 80% 85%
 Specific carbohydrate diet (n=13) 67% 40%
 IVIG (n=16) 100% 93%
 Steroids (n=12) 67% 89%
 B12 injections (n=31) 75% 83%
  1. Abbreviation: ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; ASD, autism spectrum disorder; GFCF, gluten free casein free; IVIG, intravenous immunoglobulin; PDD-NOS, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified.
  2. *P<0.05.
  3. **P<0.01.