Figure 8 | Microsystems & Nanoengineering

Figure 8

From: Heterogeneous 2D/3D photonic integrated microsystems

Figure 8

(a) Optical phase array beam steering module realized by heterogeneous integration of a 3D waveguide array similar to Figure 7b and a 2D PIC consisting of optical splitter waveguides and waveguide array phase shifters. (bi) optical beam steering results obtained from phase tuning the array waveguides in the 2D PIC by π, 0.75π, 0.5π, 0.25π, 0, −0.25π, −0.5π, and −0.75π between the waveguides51. The optical waveguide propagation loss value of the 3D waveguide was ~0.2 dB cm−1. PIC, photonic integrated circuits; 2D, two dimensional; 3D, three dimensional

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