Figure 2 | Mucosal Immunology

Figure 2

From: Oral tolerance to food protein

Figure 2

Routes by which intestinally derived antigen might disseminate and generate widespread systemic tolerance. Antigen taken up into Peyer's patches (PP) or lamina propria may enter the bloodstream via the portal vein, first reaching the liver before it becomes distributed into the wider circulation. Systemic tolerance may then occur because of antigen presentation in the liver by sinusoidal endothelial cells, tolerogenic conventional dendritic cells (DCs) or plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), or because antigen reaching peripheral lymph nodes (pLNs) will be presented by resident DCs in the absence of costimulation. Free antigen taken up into afferent intestinal lymph will pass through the mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) and eventually enter the bloodstream via the thoracic duct.

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