Additional treatment with 2-Chloro-2-Deoxyadenosine during consolidation in children with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia does not improve survival

Article metrics

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1


  1. 1

    Robak P, Robak T . Older and new purine nucleoside analogs for patients with acute leukemias. Cancer Treat Rev 2013; 39: 851–861.

  2. 2

    Santana VM, Mirro J Jr., Kearns C, Schell MJ, Crom W, Blakley RL . 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine produces a high rate of complete hematologic remission in relapsed acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol 1992; 10: 364–370.

  3. 3

    Griffig J, Koob R, Blakley RL . Mechanisms of inhibition of DNA synthesis by 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine in human lymphoblastic cells. Cancer Res 1989; 49 (24 Pt 1): 6923–6928.

  4. 4

    Seto S, Carrera CJ, Kubota M, Wasson DB, Carson DA . Mechanism of deoxyadenosine and 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine toxicity to nondividing human lymphocytes. J Clin Invest 1985; 75: 377–383.

  5. 5

    Hubeek I, Peters GJ, Broekhuizen R, Zwaan CM, Kaaijk P, van Wering ES et al. In vitro sensitivity and cross-resistance to deoxynucleoside analogs in childhood acute leukemia. Haematologica 2006; 91: 17–23.

  6. 6

    Krance RA, Hurwitz CA, Head DR, Raimondi SC, Behm FG, Crews KR et al. Experience with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine in previously untreated children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic diseases. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19: 2804–2811.

  7. 7

    Holowiecki J, Grosicki S, Giebel S, Robak T, Kyrcz-Krzemien S, Kuliczkowski K et al. Cladribine, but not fludarabine, added to daunorubicin and cytarabine during induction prolongs survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a multicenter, randomized phase III study. J Clin Oncol 2012; 30: 2441–2448.

  8. 8

    Holowiecki J, Grosicki S, Robak T, Kyrcz-Krzemien S, Giebel S, Hellmann A et al. Addition of cladribine to daunorubicin and cytarabine increases complete remission rate after a single course of induction treatment in acute myeloid leukemia. Multicenter, phase III study. Leukemia 2004; 18: 989–997.

  9. 9

    Creutzig U, Zimmermann M, Bourquin JP, Dworzak MN, Fleischhack G, Graf N et al. Randomized trial comparing liposomal daunorubicin with idarubicin as induction for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: results from Study AML-BFM 2004. Blood 2013; 122: 37–43.

  10. 10

    Gandhi V, Estey E, Keating MJ, Chucrallah A, Plunkett W . Chlorodeoxyadenosine and arabinosylcytosine in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia: pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and molecular interactions. Blood 1996; 87: 256–264.

  11. 11

    Creutzig U, Dworzak M, Zimmermann M, Bourquin J, Gruhn B, Fleischhack G et al. Randomised introduction of 2-CDA as intensification during consolidation for children with high-risk AML—Results from Study AML-BFM 2004. Klin Padiatr 2015; 227, in press.

Download references


We thank the colleagues, data managers and technicians of the participating hospitals for their valuable cooperation, Jans-Enno Müller (Hannover) and Nora Mühlegger (Vienna) for competent data management. This study was supported by the Deutsche Krebshilfe e.V. and partly by the project (Ministry of Health, Czech Republic) for conceptual development of research organization 00064203 (the University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic).

Author Contributions

UC, MND, MZ, J-PB and DR designed and performed research and wrote and edited the paper. MZ, UC, MND and DR analyzed the data, CvN and JS performed the diagnostic studies and edited the paper, BG, GF, NG, TK, BK, TL, AvS and JS provided the study materials or patients and edited the manuscript. All the authors reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Author information

Correspondence to U Creutzig.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Supplementary Information accompanies this paper on the Leukemia website

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Creutzig, U., Dworzak, M., Zimmermann, M. et al. Additional treatment with 2-Chloro-2-Deoxyadenosine during consolidation in children with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia does not improve survival. Leukemia 29, 2260–2263 (2015) doi:10.1038/leu.2015.94

Download citation