Acute erythroleukemia (AML-M6) is an uncommon subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML); it is considered to have a poor prognosis. From 1 January 1980 to 21 May 2008, 91 patients with newly diagnosed AML-M6 were seen at the University of Texas–M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (UT–MDACC). Forty-five patients (50%) had a history of myelodysplatic syndrome (MDS), compared with 41% in our control group (patients with other AML subtypes) (P=0.08). Poor-risk cytogenetics were more common in patients with AML-M6 (61% versus 38%, P=0.001). Complete remission rates were 62% for patients with AML-M6, comparing with 58% for the control group (P=0.35). Median disease free survival (DFS) for patients with AML-M6 was 32 weeks, versus 49 weeks for the control group (P=0.05). Median overall survival (OS) of patients with AML-M6 was 36 weeks, compared with 43 weeks for the control group (P=0.60). On multivariate analysis for DFS and OS, AML-M6 was not an independent risk factor. AML-M6 is commonly associated with a previous diagnosis of MDS and poor-risk karyotype. The diagnosis of AML-M6 does not impart by itself a worse prognosis, and treatment decisions on this disease should be guided by well known AML prognostic factors.
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Santos, F., Faderl, S., Garcia-Manero, G. et al. Adult acute erythroleukemia: an analysis of 91 patients treated at a single institution. Leukemia 23, 2275–2280 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1038/leu.2009.181
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