Hippocampus sections from control cases rarely display pS6 granular staining (a). In AD cases, however, many neurons have specific pS6 granules (b). Higher magnification reveals the granules range from about 0.1 to 2.0 μm in diameter (c). Quantification of the number of neurons in the entire hippocampal section containing granules in the CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 regions, finds AD cases (n=11) contain nearly 20-fold more pS6 containing neurons than age-matched controls (n=8) (d, *P<0.01). Scale bars=20 μm.