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The '3Rs' Model and the Concept of Alternatives in Animal Research: A Questionnaire Survey


It has been 45 years since Russell and Burch first proposed the concept of the '3Rs', yet it remains unclear how those individuals involved in animal research view and implement these concepts. The authors used a questionnaire survey to determine how well-known experts judged issues related to the 3Rs.

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We would like to acknowledge Caterina Botti, Hannah Buchanan-Smith, Josefien von Frijtag Drabbe Kunzel, Coenraad Hendriksen, Anita Rennie, Annalaura Stammati, and Jan Vorstenbosch, our partners in the project, for their useful comments on the results of the questionnaire. The European Community (Contract No. QLRT-2001-00028) funds the project “Alternative methods in animal experimentation—Evaluating scientific, ethical and social issues in the 3Rs context”.

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Correspondence to Augusto Vitale PhD.

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Pollo, S., Vitale, A., Gayle, V. et al. The '3Rs' Model and the Concept of Alternatives in Animal Research: A Questionnaire Survey. Lab Anim 33, 47–53 (2004).

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