Table 1b Delivery and infant characteristics and umbilical artery acidosis, birth asphyxia-related complications and admission to NICU

From: Durations of second stage of labor and pushing, and adverse neonatal outcomes: a population-based cohort study

  Acidosis a Birth asphyxia-related complications b Admission to NICU
Delivery and infant characteristics N totalc N % N total N % N %
  33 429 360 1.08 42 539 269 0.63 2733 6.42
Onset of delivery
 Spontaneous 27 260 284 1.04 34 913 209 0.60 2132 6.11
 Induction 6169 76 1.23 7626 60 0.79 601 7.88
Oxytocin
 No use 9258 89 0.96 12 387 46 0.37 584 4.71
 Use         
Start before retracted cervix 16 316 186 1.14 20 292 170 0.84 1 509 7.44
Start at/after retracted cervix 7855 85 1.08 9860 53 0.54 640 6.49
Start at/after retracted cervix before pushing 4561 46 1.01 5765 28 0.49 351 6.09
Start at/after pushing 2642 29 1.10 3271 16 0.49 224 6.85
Missing information on time for pushing 652    824     
Gestational length at birth (w)
 37 1476 7 0.47 1901 6 0.32 231 12.15
 38 3410 19 0.56 4391 27 0.61 339 7.72
 39 7513 62 0.83 9722 38 0.39 521 5.36
 40 10 655 127 1.19 13 568 82 0.60 790 5.82
 41 7595 101 1.33 9553 88 0.92 620 6.49
42 2780 44 1.58 3 404 28 0.82 232 6.82
  1. Abbreviations: BE, base excess; HIE, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy; MAS, meconium aspiration syndrome; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.
  2. Nulliparous women with singleton births, in cephalic presentation at 37 gestational weeks in the Stockholm-Gotland Obstetric Cohort, Sweden 2008–2013
  3. aAcidosis: umbilical artery acidosis, pH <7.05 and BE< −12.
  4. bBirth asphyxia-related complications include any of the following conditions: HIE, hypothermia treatment, neonatal seizures, MAS or advanced resuscitation after birth (heart compressions or intubation).
  5. cMissing data on pH and/or BE: N=9110.