Table 5 US and VCUG findings in clinical series of premature infants and term infants with UTI

From: Prevalence of upper urinary tract anomalies in hospitalized premature infants with urinary tract infection

Population (references) No. of infants Abnormal US VUR/VCUG VUR and US findings Reflux by gender Comments
Bauer et al. 3
 <1000 g 34 (28 M/6 F) 9 (26%) 2/26 (7.7%) 1/9 Abnormal 3/43 (7%) Males;
3/23 (13%) females
  2 Grade I;
3 grade II;
1 grade III
     1/17 Normal    
 1001–1500 g 28 (15 M/13 F) 1 (3.5%) 4/17 (23%) 0/1 Abnormal    
     4/13 Normal    
Nowell et al. 9
 65, <1000 g; 43, 1000–1499 g 141 (92 M/50 F) 10/114 (9%) 6/82 (7%) 2/6 With VUR had abnormal US Unknown   3 Grade I;
2 grade II;
1 grade III;
PUV in one
Current study
 <1000 g 44 (33 M/11 F) 19/42 (45%) 8/37 (22%) 6/19 Abnormal 4/28 Males 6/80 (7.5%) Males;
9/45 (20%) females
1 Grade I;
7 grade II;
5 grade III;
2 grade IV
     2/18 Normal 4/9 Female   
 1001–1499 g 35 (28 M/7 F) 13/35 (11%) 1/33 (3%) 0/14 Abnormal 0/27 Males   
     1/19 Normal 1/6 Female   
 >1500 g 39 (30 M/9 F) 15/39 (38%) 6/34 (18%) 2/14 Abnormal 2/25 Males   
     4/20 Normal 4/9 Female   
Goldman et al. 15
 Males <8 weeks old 45 Males 12/45 (27%) 21/44 (48%) 8/12 Abnormal All males (48%)   All grade IV (4)
and V (1) had
an abnormal
US PUV in one
     13/32 Normal    
Ismaili et al. 2
 0–3 Months 43 (32 M/11 F) 11/43 (26%) 9/43 (21%) 6/14 Abnormal 6/32 (19%) Males; 3/11 (27%) females   6 Grade I–III VUR;
3 grade IV–V
had abnl US
     3/26 Normal    
Preda et al. 18
 <12 Months 290 (161 M/129 F) 120 (41%) 52 (18%) 29/120 Abnormal 25/161 (16%) Males;
27/129 (21%) females
  8/10 With grade IV
and V reflux had
an abnl US
     23/170 Normal    
Total   210/670 (31%) 109/606 (18%) VUR/abnormal US 52/203 (26%) Premature: 9/123 (7%) males;
12/68 (18%) females
  
     VUR/normal US 51/315 (16%) Term: 52/237 (22%) males; 30/140 (21%) females   
  1. Abbreviations: abnl, abnormal; F, females; M, males; PUV, posterior urethral valves; US, ultrasound; UTI, urinary tract infection; VCUG, voiding cystourethrogram; VUR, vesicoureteral reflux.