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Fruit and vegetables consumption and incident hypertension: dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Journal of Human Hypertension volume 30, pages 573580 (2016) | Download Citation

Abstract

The role of dietary factors on chronic diseases seems essential in the potentially adverse or preventive effects. However, no evidence of dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies has verified the association between the intake of fruit and/or vegetables and the risk of developing hypertension. The PubMed and Embase were searched for prospective cohort studies. A generic inverse-variance method with random effects model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Generalized least squares trend estimation model was used to calculate the study-specific slopes for the dose–response analyses. Seven articles comprised nine cohorts involving 185 676 participants were assessed. The highest intake of fruit or vegetables separately, and total fruit and vegetables were inversely associated with the incident risk of hypertension compared with the lowest level, and the pooled RRs and 95% CIs were 0.87 (0.79, 0.95), 0.88 (0.79, 0.99) and 0.90 (0.84, 0.98), respectively. We also found an inverse dose–response relation between the risk of developing hypertension and fruit intake, and total fruit and vegetables consumption. The incident risk of hypertension was decreased by 1.9% for each serving per day of fruit consumption, and decreased by 1.2% for each serving per day of total fruit and vegetables consumption. Our results support the recommendation to increase the consumption of fruit and vegetables with respect to preventing the risk of developing hypertension. However, further large prospective studies and long-term high-quality randomized controlled trials are still needed to confirm the observed association.

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Acknowledgements

This study was supported by research grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China, 81072355, 81373080; Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, D121100004912003; Military Medicine Innovation Fund, 13CXZ029.

Author contributions

LW and YH were responsible for the conception and design. LW, DS and YH took part in the acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Geriatrics, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China

    • L Wu
    •  & Y He
  2. Beijing Key Laboratory of Aging and Geriatrics, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China

    • L Wu
  3. Department of Bioengineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

    • D Sun
  4. Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, USA

    • D Sun
  5. State Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China

    • Y He

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Competing interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Y He.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/jhh.2016.44

Supplementary Information accompanies this paper on the Journal of Human Hypertension website (http://www.nature.com/jhh)

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