Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) is linked to increased risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, few studies have assessed the impact of this relationship among blacks with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Data for this study were collected from 1035 blacks (mean age=62±13 years) enrolled in the Metabolic Syndrome Outcome study. Patients with a score ⩾6 on the Apnea Risk Evaluation System were considered at risk for OSA. Of the sample, 77.1% were low-to-high OSA risk and 92.3% were hypertensive, of which 16.8% had uncontrolled BP levels. Analysis also showed that 60.4% were diabetic, 8.9% had a stroke history, 74.3% had dyslipidemia, 69.8% were obese and 30.9% had a history of heart disease. Logistic regression analyses were employed to investigate associations between uncontrolled BP and OSA risk, while adjusting for known covariates. Findings showed that uncontrolled BP independently increased the odds of OSA risk twofold (odds ratio=2.02, 95% confidence interval=1.18–3.48, P<0.05). In conclusion, our findings show that uncontrolled BP was associated with a twofold greater risk of OSA among blacks, suggesting that those with MetS and who have uncontrolled BP should be screened for the presence of OSA.
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This work was supported by funding from the NIMHD (R01MD004113, R01MD007716), the NINDS (U54NS081765) and the NHLBI (K24HL111315).
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Seixas, A., Ravenell, J., Williams, N. et al. Uncontrolled blood pressure and risk of sleep apnea among blacks: findings from the metabolic syndrome outcome (MetSO) study. J Hum Hypertens 30, 149–152 (2016) doi:10.1038/jhh.2015.78