Table 2: Characteristics of the studies included in the review

From: Does psychosocial stress cause hypertension? A systematic review of observational studies

First author, year of publication, countrySample size (% women)Age at entry (years)ExposureFollow-up (years)No events/casesDefinition of outcomeAdjustment
 Kahn, 1972, Israel149586 (0)>40Chronic stressors (29 single items)53829BP 160/95 mm HgAge, place of birth
 Sparrow, 1982, USA191166 (0)23–80Affective response (19 score items grouping in 5 items)1064BP 160/95 mm HgBP initial, age, haematocrit, skin fold sub scapular, BMI
 Perini, 1991, Switzerland12121 (41)16–24Life events (14 score items)2.55BP 160/95 mm HgBP initial, CVR, plasma nor adrenaline, psychological factors, parental hypertension, weight, sodium clearance
 Everson, 2000, Finland20616 (0)50.4±6.6Hopelessness (2 score items)4.2126BP 165/95 mm Hg or use of BP drugsAge, BMI, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, education, SBP initial, parental hypertension, depressive symptoms
 Levenstein, 2001, USA152357 (56)AdultsJob (2 single items), social alienation20637Use of BP drugs self-reportedAge, medical check-up, BMI, smoking, physical activity, alcohol, education, race, unemployment, depression
 Nakanishi, 2001, Japan16941 (0)35–54Work hours5336BP 140/90 mm Hg or use of BP drugsAge, BP initial, BMI, alcohol, smoking, fruits and vegetable, physical activity, salt, sleep hours, breakfast
 Fauvel, 2003, France20274 (8)36±1Job content questionnaire593Δ SBP/DBP >7 mm Hg or DBP >95 mm HgSex, age, BP initial, HR at entry, CVR, alcohol, sodium clearance
 Markovitz, 2004, USA183200 (55)20–32Job content questionnaire889BP 160/95 mm Hg or use of BP drugsAge, BMI, education, SBP initial
 Cozier, 2006, USA2130 330 (100)37 (MED)Perceived racism (8 single items)42316Self-reportedAge, BMI, questionnaire cycle
 Dorn, 2007, Netherlands131880 (52.3)46.3Life events (caregivers of fire victims)4305Medical diagnosisAge, sex, insurance type, history of chronic disease, number of medical consultation, single parenthood
 Schnall, 1990, USA9196 (0)45±8.7Job content questionnaire 76DBP >85 mm HgAge, BMI, type A, alcohol, education, smoking
 Perez, 2001, Colombia10456 (64)54±12.4Structured questionnaire87BP 140/90 mm Hg or use of BP drugsAge, sex, obesity, physical activity, salt, alcohol, smoking, fat, education, stroke FH heart failure and AMI
 El-Shafei, 2002, Egypt11361 (52.1)75.8% >40Semistructured questionnaire165Medical diagnosisBMI, age, sex, occupation, smoking, diet
 Radi, 2005, France8565 (30)41.8±7.8 men, 43.5±7.5 womenLife stress (14 score items dichotomized)203BP 140/90 mm Hg or use of BP drugsAge, education, behaviour, social support
 Radi, 2005, France8565(30)41.8±7.8 men, 43.5±7.5 womenJob content questionnaire203BP 140/90 mm Hg or use of BP drugsAge, education, behaviour, social support
  1. Abbreviations: AMI, acute myocardial infarction; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FH, familiar history; HR, heart rate; MED, median; CVR, cardiovascular reactivity; SBP, systolic blood pressure.