The House of Aisin Gioro, the imperial clan of Qing dynasty (1644–1911), affected the history of China and the formation of Manchu ethnicity greatly. However, owing to the lack of historical records and archeological evidences, the origin of the House of Aisin Gioro remains ambiguous. To clarify the origin of Aisin Gioro clan, we conducted whole Y-chromosome sequencing on three samples and Y-single-nucleotide polymorphism (Y-SNP) genotyping on other four samples beside those reported in previous work. We confirmed that the paternal lineage of the Aisin Gioro clan belongs to haplogroup C3b1a3a2-F8951, a brother branch of C3*-Star Cluster (currently named as C3b1a3a1-F3796, once linked to Genghis Khan), which is quite different from the predominant lineage C3c-M48 in other Tungusic-speaking populations. We also determined a series of unique Y-SNP markers for the Aisin Gioro clan. Diversity analyses of haplogroup C3b1a3a2-F8951 revealed the early migration of the ancestors of the Aisin Gioro clan from the middle reaches of Amur River to their later settlement in southeastern Manchuria. Hence, our results suggest that the Aisin Gioro clan may be descendants of ancient populations in Transbaikal region and closely related to origin of current Daur populations. Our research indicated that detailed research of stemma and deep sequencing of Y chromosomes are helpful to explore the prehistoric activities of populations lacking historical records and archeological evidences.
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We are grateful for the trust of the sample donors. We thank the support from Sir Harumasa Tachibana during the sampling. LHW was supported by Future Scientists Project of China Scholarship Council. This work was supported by NSFC for Excellent Young Scholar (nos 31222030, 31671297, 31271338, 31401060), MOE Scientific Research Project (113022A), Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST) (2016YFC0900300), and Shanghai Shuguang Project (14SG05).
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Wei, L., Yan, S., Yu, G. et al. Genetic trail for the early migrations of Aisin Gioro, the imperial house of the Qing dynasty. J Hum Genet 62, 407–411 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2016.142
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