Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) plays a critical role in the assembly of lipoproteins. The aim of this study was first to seek new MTP gene variants and then to verify whether MTP gene polymorphisms were associated with plasma lipoprotein/lipid levels in men with visceral obesity. Molecular screening of the MTP gene revealed 11 polymorphisms. The carriers of the c.933A allele and c.1151C allele or –400A/A homozygotes were characterized by increased levels of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AT) measured by computed tomography (P=0.02, P=0.04, P=0.03, respectively). After dividing each genotype group into subgroups using 130 cm2 as a cutoff point for visceral AT, significantly higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apolipoprotein B (apoB) concentrations were found in obese men bearing the c.891G allele, the –400 T allele, as well as for 282G/G homozygotes, 933C/C homozygotes, and 1151A/A homozygotes when compared to their lean counterparts. Haplotypes were not associated with phenotypes under study. In conclusion, some MTP gene polymorphisms in the French Canadian population are associated with the amount of abdominal visceral AT and plasma LDL-apoB concentrations.