Original Article | Published:

Predictors and respiratory depositions of airborne endotoxin in homes using biomass fuels and LPG gas for cooking

Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology volume 27, pages 112117 (2017) | Download Citation

Abstract

Recent studies have highlighted the presence of endotoxin in indoor air and its role in respiratory morbidities. Burning of household fuels including unprocessed wood and dried animal dung could be a major source of endotoxin in homes. We measured endotoxin levels in different size fractions of airborne particles (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1), and estimated the deposition of particle-bound endotoxin in the respiratory tract. The study was carried out in homes burning solid biomass fuel (n=35) and LPG (n=35). Sample filters were analyzed for endotoxin and organic carbon (OC) content. Household characteristics including temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide levels were also recorded. Multivariate regression models were used to estimate the contributing factors for airborne endotoxin. Respiratory deposition doses were calculated using a computer-based model. We found a higher endotoxin concentration in PM2.5 fractions of the particle in both LPG (median: 110, interquartile range (IQR) 100–120 EU/m3) and biomass (median: 350, IQR: 315–430 EU/m3) burning homes. In the multivariate-adjusted model, burning of solid biomass fuel (β: 67; 95% CI: 10.5–124) emerged as the most significant predictor followed by OC (β: 4.7; 95% CI: 2.7–6.8), RH (β: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.76–2.4), and PM2.5 (β: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.11–0.78) for airborne endotoxin (P<0.05). We also observed an interaction between PM organic carbon content and household fuel in predicting the endotoxin levels. The model calculations showed that in biomass burning homes, total endotoxin deposition was higher among infants (59%) than in adult males (47%), of which at least 10% of inhaled endotoxin is deposited in the alveolar region of the lung. These results indicate that fine particles are significant contributors to the deposition of endotoxin in the alveolar region of the lung. Considering the paramount role of endotoxin exposure, and the source and timing of exposure on respiratory health, additional studies are warranted to guide evidence-based public health interventions.

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Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the cooperation of the households during air sampling. We thank Karunakar Panda of AIPH for assistance with household PM measurements. This study was funded in part by NICHD Grant R01 HD 53719 and is being continued as part of an ongoing IMMENSE (Impact of Maternal Environmental and Socioeconomic factors on child health and development) research project in India funded by a grant from the University of Nebraska Foundation.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Center for Environmental and Occupational Health, Asian Institute of Public Health, Bhubaneswar, India

    • Bijaya K Padhi
  2. Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia, USA

    • Atin Adhikari
  3. Department of Biotechnology, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack, India

    • Prakasini Satapathy
  4. Regional Medical Research Center, Indian Council of Medical Research, Bhubaneswar, India

    • Prakasini Satapathy
  5. Center for Global Health and Development, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA

    • Alok K Patra
    • , Dinesh Chandel
    •  & Pinaki Panigrahi

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The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Pinaki Panigrahi.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2016.5