Original Article | Published:

Urinary metabolites of 1-nitropyrene in US–Mexico border residents who frequently cross the San Ysidro Port of Entry

Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology volume 27, pages 8489 (2017) | Download Citation

Abstract

Diesel exhaust presents a community exposure hazard, but methods to measure internal exposure are lacking. We report results from a community-based study using 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and its urinary metabolites as markers of exposure to traffic-related diesel particulate matter (DPM). The study participants were Tijuana, Mexico residents who commuted on foot into San Diego, California for work or school using the International San Ysidro Port of Entry, placing them within feet of idling traffic (referred to as border commuters). The comparison group (non-border commuters) was comprised of residents of south San Diego who did not commute into Mexico. Air concentration of 1-NP in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was measured in personal samples from participants. Spot urine samples were analyzed for 1-NP urinary metabolites 8-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene (8-OHNP) and 8-hydroxy-N-acetyl-1-aminopyrene (8-OHNAAP). Compared with non-border commuters, border commuters had two- to threefold higher mean urinary concentrations for unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted 8-OHNP and 8-OHNAAP. Urinary 8-OHNAAP and the sum of 8-OHNP and 8-OHNAAP were both associated with personal exposure to 1-NP in the prior 24 h. These results suggest that 1-NP urinary metabolites reflect recent exposure to DPM-derived 1-NP in community settings and can be useful for exposure analysis.

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Acknowledgements

This research was supported, in part, by grants from the following organizations: San Diego Foundation Clean Environments, Healthy Communities (C-2009-00097); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the San Diego Prevention Research Center (U48DP00917) and the Northwest Center for Occupational Safety and Health (T42 OH008433); California Endowment (G00007920); US EPA (RD-83479601-0) and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (P30ES007033 and T32ES015459). This publication’s contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the sponsoring agencies. We thank the study participants for their willingness to enroll and the US Customs for their assistance. Additionally, we would like to thank Casa Familiar for their assistance in participant recruitment and for translating the field documents into Spanish. The Graduate School of Public Health Laboratory facility at San Diego State University kindly provided laboratory space for sample collection preparation and storage, while the biomarker laboratory of Dr. Simpson and the Environmental Health Laboratory directed by Dr. Russell Dills kindly provided the laboratory space and equipment for sample analysis.

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Affiliations

  1. Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

    • Vanessa Eileen Galaviz
    • , Michael George Yost
    • , Lianne Sheppard
    • , Michael Henry Paulsen
    • , Janice Ellouise Camp
    •  & Christopher David Simpson
  2. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, California, USA

    • Vanessa Eileen Galaviz
  3. Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA

    • Penelope Jane Eiddwen Quintana
  4. University of Washington, School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Seattle, Washington, USA

    • Lianne Sheppard

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The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Christopher David Simpson.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2015.78