Table 1 Formulas and inputs30 for calculating average daily dose (ADD) for multiple exposure pathways in aircraft and non-aircraft environments.

From: Air concentrations of PBDEs on in-flight airplanes and assessment of flight crew inhalation exposure

Variable Value/unit Reference
Indoor inhalation
ADDinhalation−indoor=(Cair−indoor × IR × Faircraft × CF × Absair)/BW
 Cair−indoor, air concentration See text (ng/m3) Non-aircraft: Allen et al.31 Aircraft: primary data
 IR, inhalation rate (95th percentile) 21.3 m3/day USEPA30
 Faircraft, fraction of total indoor time (over a year) on aircraft/not on aircraft 11%/69% Aircraft fraction=167 days per year × 6 h per day
 CF, conversion factor (μg/1000 ng)  
 Absair, relative absorption factor 1.0 USEPA30
 BW, body weight 71.8 kg USEPA30
Dust ingestion
ADDdust=(Cdust × IngRdust × Faircraft × CF × Absdust−soil)/BW
 Cdust, dust concentration See text (μg/g) Non-aircraft: Allen et al.4, 5 Aircraft: Christiansson et al.6
 IngRdust, dust ingestion rate (95th percentile) 55 mg/day USEPA30
 Faircraft, fraction of indoor awake time (over a year) on aircraft/not on aircraft 25%/75% Aircraft fraction =167 days per year × 6 h per day
 CF, conversion factor (g/1000 mg)  
 Absdust−soil, relative absorption factor 0.6 USEPA30
 BW, body weight 71.8 kg USEPA30
Dermal absorption from indoor dust contact
ADDdermal=(Cdust × Ad × SA × CF × Absdermal)/BW
 Cdust, dust concentration See text (μg/g) Non-aircraft: Allen et al.4, 5 Aircraft: Christiansson et al.6
 Ad, dust to skin adherence 0.003 mg/cm2-day USEPA30
 SA, skin contact area 5000 cm2 USEPA30
 CF, conversion factor (g/1000 mg)  
 Absdermal, relative absorption factor 0.0375 Lorber13
 BW, body weight 71.8 kg USEPA30
Soil ingestion
ADDsoil=(Csoil × IngRsoil × Fotna × CF × Absdust−soil)/BW
 Csoil, soil concentration See text (μg/g) Lorber13 (citing Offenberg et al.44)
 IngRsoil, soil ingestion rate 45 mg/day USEPA30
 Fotna, fraction of outdoor time (over a year) not on aircraft 100% Calculated
 CF, conversion factor (g/1000 mg)  
 Absdust−soil, relative absorption factor 0.6 USEPA30
 BW, body weight 71.8 kg USEPA30
Outdoor inhalation
ADDinhalation−outdoor=(Cair−outdoor × IR × Fotna × CF1 × Absair)/BW
 Cair−outdoor, air concentration See text (ng/m3) Lorber13 (citing CARB32)
 IR, inhalation rate (95th percentile) 21.3 m3/day USEPA30
 Fotna, fraction of total time (over a year), not in aircraft 20% Calculated
 CF1, conversion factor 1 (μg/1000 ng)  
 Absair, relative absorption factor 1.0 USEPA30
 BW, body weight 71.8 kg USEPA30