Residential dust has been used as a medium for assessing human exposures to a constellation of indoor contaminants including radionuclides, persistent organic pollutants, metals, allergens, and tobacco smoke. Here, we review and comment on investigations of household dust levels of particular analytes of health significance, namely polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In doing so, we not only describe methods for collecting and analyzing residential dust, but also describe global patterns in dust levels. Aside from geographic location, we discuss several potential determinants for dust levels of these contaminants. We also review previous estimates of the contribution of dust to overall intake of these three chemical classes and show how residential-dust measurements could be useful in either augmenting or replacing questionnaire-based assessment of human exposures in epidemiological studies. We conclude our review with a discussion of the current gaps in knowledge of worldwide dust levels and suggestions for how residential-dust measurements could be used to describe human exposures to chemicals in developing countries.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
PAH concentrations and exposure assessment from house dust retained in air-conditioning filters collected from Greater Doha, Qatar
Environmental Geochemistry and Health Open Access 27 March 2019
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology Open Access 23 March 2012
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $19.83 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service: Atlanta, GA, 1995.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxilogical Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service: Atlanta, GA, 2001.
Al Bitar F. Hazardous Chemicals in Belgian House Dust. Greenpeace Belgium, Brussels, Belgium, 2004.
Allen J.G., McClean M.D., Stapleton H.M., and Webster T.F. Critical factors in assessing exposure to PBDEs via house dust. Environ Int 2008a: 34 (8): 1085–1091.
Allen J.G., McClean M.D., Stapleton H.M., and Webster T.F. Linking PBDEs in house dust to consumer products using X-ray fluorescence. Environ Sci Technol 2008b: 42 (11): 4222–4228.
Ayoko G.A., Robertson S.T., and Duigu J.R. Elemental and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compositions of house dust in Brisbane, Australia. In: Yang X, Zhao B and Zhao R. (eds). Proceeding, Indoor Air 2005. Beijing, China, 2005, vol. 2, pp 1536–1540 (abstr.).
Batterman S.A., Chernyak S., Jia C., Godwin C., and Charles S. Concentrations and emissions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from U.S. houses and garages. Environ Sci Technol 2009: 43 (8): 2693–2700.
Birnbaum L.S., and Staskal D.F. Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern? Environ Health Perspect 2004: 112 (1): 9–17.
Bjorklund J.A., Sellstrom U., de Wit C.A., Aune M., Lignell S., and Darnerud P.O . Comparisons of PBDE and HBCD concentrations in dust collected by two different sampling methods and their association to human breast milk concentrations. In: Organohalogen Compounds. San Antonio, TX, 2010, vol. 72, pp 502–505 (abstr.).
Breivik K., Sweetman A., Pacyna J.M., and Jones K.C. Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners—a mass balance approach. 1. Global production and consumption. Sci Tot Environ 2002: 290 (1–3): 181–198.
Breivik K., Sweetman A., Pacyna J.M., and Jones K.C. Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners—a mass balance approach. 3. An update. Sci Total Environ 2007: 377 (2–3): 296–307.
Brominated Science and Environmental Forum. Regulation on BFRs in China [homepage on the Internet]. Brussels, Belgium, 2010. Available from: http://www.bsef.com/regulation/asia-pacific/china/.
Bromine Science and Environmental Forum. Applications of Deca-BDE Fact Sheet. Washington, DC, 2006.
Bromine Science and Environmental Forum. Legislation on BFRs in North America [homepage on the Internet]. Brussels, Belgium, 2010. Available from: http://www.bsef.com/regulation/north-america/.
Butte W., and Heinzow B. Pollutants in house dust as indicators of indoor contamination. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 2002: 175: 1–46.
Camann D.E., Colt J.S., Teitelbaum S.L., Rudel R.A., Hart R.M., and Gammon M.D. Pesticide and PAH distributions in house dust from seven areas of USA. Society of Environmental Toxicology And Chemistry Annual Meeting. Nashville, TN. November 16, 2000 (abst. #570).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State-specific prevalence and trends in adult cigarette smoking—United States, 1998–2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2009: 58 (9): 221–226.
Chuang J.C. Analysis of soil and house dust for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1996. Report No.: EPA/600/R-96/060.
Chuang J.C., Callahan P.J., Lyu C.W., and Wilson N.K. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposures of children in low-income families. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 1999: 9 (2): 85–98.
Chuang J.C., Chou Y.L., Nishioka M., Andrews K., Pollard M., and Menton R. Field evaluation of screening techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 2,4-diphenoxyacetic acid, and pentachlorophenol in air, house dust, soil, and total diet. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997. Report No.: EPA/600/R-97/109.
Colt J.S., Gunier R.B., Metayer C., Nishioka M.G., Bell E.M., and Reynolds P., et al. Household vacuum cleaners vs. the high-volume surface sampler for collection of carpet dust samples in epidemiologic studies of children. Environ Health 2008: 7: 6.
Colt J.S., Severson R.K., Lubin J., Rothman N., Camann D., and Davis S., et al. Organochlorines in carpet dust and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Epidemiology 2005: 16 (4): 516–525.
Cunha S.C., Kalachova K., Pulkrabova J., Fernandes J.O., Oliveira M.B., and Alves A., et al. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contents in house and car dust of Portugal by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chemosphere 2010: 78 (10): 1263–1271.
D’Hollander W., Roosens L., Covaci A., Cornelis C., Reynders H., and Campenhout K.V., et al. Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds in indoor dust from homes and offices in flanders, Belgium. Chemosphere 2010: 81 (4): 478–487.
de Wit C.A., Thuresson K., and Bjorklund J.A. Tri- to decabrominated diphenyl ethers and HBCD in indoor air and dust from Stockholm microenvironments. In: Organohalogen Compounds. Birmingham, England, 2008, vol. 70, pp 846–849 (abstr.).
Dirtu A.C., and Covaci A. Estimation of daily intake of organohalogenated contaminants from food consumption and indoor dust ingestion in Romania. Environ Sci Technol 2010: 44 (16): 6297–6304.
Dirtu A.C., Ravindra K., Roosens L., van Grieken R., Neels H., and Blust R., et al. Fast analysis of decabrominated diphenyl ether using low-pressure gas chromatography-electron-capture negative ionization mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 2008: 1186 (1–2): 295–301.
Dobson S., and van Esch G.J. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Terphenyls. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993. Report No.: Environmental Health Criteria 140.
Egeghy P.P., Quackenboss J.J., Catlin S., and Ryan P.B. Determinants of temporal variability in NHEXAS-Maryland environmental concentrations, exposures, and biomarkers. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 2005: 15 (5): 388–397.
European Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel. Deca-BDE and the RoHS Directive [homepage on the Internet]. Brussels, Belgium, 2010. Available from: http://www.ebfrip.org/main-nav/european-regulatory-centre/rohs-directive-restriction-of-the-use-of-certain-hazardous-substances-in-electrical-and-electronic-equipment/the-rohs-directive-and-deca-bde.
Fabrellas B., Martinez A., Ramos B., Ruiz M.L., Navarro I., and de la Torre A. Results of an European survey based on PBDEs analysis in household dust. In: Organohalogen Compounds, Toronto, Canada, 2005, vol. 67, pp 452–454 (abstr.).
Franzblau A., Zwica L., Knutson K., Chen Q., Lee S.Y., and Hong B., et al. An investigation of homes with high concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and/or dioxin-like PCBs in house dust. J Occup Environ Hyg 2009: 6 (3): 188–199.
Frederiksen M., Thomsen C., Froshaug M., Vorkamp K., Thomsen M., and Becher G., et al. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in paired samples of maternal and umbilical cord blood plasma and associations with house dust in a Danish cohort. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2010: 213 (4): 233–242.
Frederiksen M., Vorkamp K., Thomsen M., and Knudsen L.E. Human internal and external exposure to PBDEs—a review of levels and sources. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2009: 212 (2): 109–134.
Fromme H., Korner W., Shahin N., Wanner A., Albrecht M., and Boehmer S., et al. Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), as evidenced by data from a duplicate diet study, indoor air, house dust, and biomonitoring in Germany. Environ Int 2009: 35 (8): 1125–1135.
Fromme H., Lahrz T., Piloty M., Gebhardt H., Oddoy A., and Ruden H. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons inside and outside of apartments in an urban area. Sci Total Environ 2004: 326 (1–3): 143–149.
Gammon M.D., Neugut A.I., Santella R.M., Teitelbaum S.L., Britton J.A., and Terry M.B., et al. The Long Island breast cancer study project: description of a multi-institutional collaboration to identify environmental risk factors for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2002: 74 (3): 235–254.
Garabrant D., Jiang X., Franzblau A., Adriaens P., Demond A., and Gillespe B., et al. The University of Michigan dioxin exposure study: residential soil and household dust unrelated to serum dioxin levels. Dioxin 2010: 30th International Symopsium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants. San Antonio, TX, 2010.
Gevao B., Al-Bahloul M., Al-Ghadban A.N., Al-Omair A., Ali L., and Zafar J., et al. House dust as a source of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Kuwait. Chemosphere 2006: 64 (4): 603–608.
Gevao B., Al-Bahloul M., Zafar J., Al-Matrouk K., and Helaleh M. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air and dust in Kuwait: implications for sources and nondietary human exposure. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2007: 53 (4): 503–512.
Hansen D., and Volland G. Study about the contamination of PAH in rooms with tar parquetry adhesives. Otto-Graf-Journal 1998: 9: 48–60.
Harrad S., de Wit C.A., Abdallah M.A., Bergh C., Bjorklund J.A., and Covaci A., et al. Indoor contamination with hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluoroalkyl compounds: an important exposure pathway for people? Environ Sci Technol 2010a: 44 (9): 3221–3231.
Harrad S., Goosey E., Desborough J., Abdallah M.A., Roosens L., and Covaci A. Dust from U.K. primary school classrooms and daycare centers: the significance of dust as a pathway of exposure of young U.K. children to brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls. Environ Sci Technol 2010b: 44 (11): 4198–4202.
Harrad S., Hazrati S., and Ibarra C. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in indoor air and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor air and dust in Birmingham, United Kingdom: implications for human exposure. Environ Sci Technol 2006: 40 (15): 4633–4638.
Harrad S., Ibarra C., Abdallah M.A., Boon R., Neels H., and Covaci A. Concentrations of brominated flame retardants in dust from United Kingdom cars, homes, and offices: causes of variability and implications for human exposure. Environ Int 2008a: 34 (8): 1170–1175.
Harrad S., Ibarra C., Diamond M., Melymuk L., Robson M., and Douwes J., et al. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in domestic indoor dust from Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom and United States. Environ Int 2008b: 34 (2): 232–238.
Harrad S., Ibarra C., Robson M., Melymuk L., Zhang X., and Diamond M., et al. Polychlorinated biphenyls in domestic dust from Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom and United States: implications for human exposure. Chemosphere 2009: 76 (2): 232–238.
Hedgeman E., Chen Q., Hong B., Chang C.W., Olson K., and Ladronka K., et al. The University of Michigan dioxin exposure study: population survey results and serum concentrations for polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenyls. Environ Health Perspect 2009: 117 (5): 811–817.
Herrick R.F., McClean M.D., Meeker J.D., Baxter L.K., and Weymouth G.A. An unrecognized source of PCB contamination in schools and other buildings. Environ Health Perspect 2004: 112 (10): 1051–1053.
Huang Y., Chen L., Peng X., Xu Z., and Ye Z. PBDEs in indoor dust in South-Central China: characteristics and implications. Chemosphere 2010: 78 (2): 169–174.
Hwang H.M., Park E.K., Young T.M., and Hammock B.D. Occurrence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in indoor dust. Sci Total Environ 2008: 404 (1): 26–35.
Imm P., Knobeloch L., Buelow C., and Anderson H.A. Household exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a Wisconsin cohort. Environ Health Perspect 2009: 117 (12): 1890–1895.
Johnson P.I., Stapleton H.M., Sjodin A., and Meeker J.D. Relationships between polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in house dust and serum. Environ Sci Technol 2010: 44 (14): 5627–5632.
Johnson-Restrepo B., and Kannan K. An assessment of sources and pathways of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the United States. Chemosphere 2009: 76 (4): 542–548.
Jones-Otazo H.A., Clarke J.P., Diamond M.L., Archbold J.A., Ferguson G., and Harner T., et al. Is house dust the missing exposure pathway for PBDEs? An analysis of the urban fate and human exposure to PBDEs. Environ Sci Technol 2005: 39 (14): 5121–5130.
Kalachova K., Pulkrabova J., Hradkova P., Poustka J., and Hajslova J. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust samples from Czech households. In: Organohalogen Compounds. Beijing, China, 2009, vol. 71, pp 2305–2309 (abstr.).
Karlsson M., Julander A., van Bavel B., and Hardell L. Levels of brominated flame retardants in blood in relation to levels in household air and dust. Environ Int 2007: 33 (1): 62–69.
Knoth W., Mann W., Meyer R., and Nebhuth J. Brominated diphenyl ether in indoor dust. In: Organohalogen Compounds. Boston, MA, 2003, vol. 61, pp 207–210 (abstr.).
Kono Y., Fukuzawa E., Miyazaki M., Nomura T., and Komatsu K. Polybrominated dioxins (PBDDs/DFs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust in ordinary homes. In: Organohalogen Compounds. Tokyo, Japan, 2007, vol. 69, pp 2781–2784 (abstr.).
Koppe J.G., and Keys J. PCBs and the Precautionary Principle. European Environment Agency, Luxembourg, 2002. Report No.: Environment Issue Report, no. 22.
Kose T., Suzuki G., Kajiwara N., Takigami H., and Sakai S. Determination of the emission amount of organic pollutants from household products using a model room. In: Organohalogen Compounds. Birmingham, England, 2008, vol. 70, pp 2305–2308 (abstr.).
Lanphear B.P., Weitzman M., Winter N.L., Eberly S., Yakir B., and Tanner M., et al. Lead-contaminated house dust and urban children's blood lead levels. Am J Public Health 1996: 86 (10): 1416–1421.
Lee S.Y., Zwica L., Knutson K., Hong B., Chen Q., and Towey T., et al. Linear regression modeling to predict household dust PCB congener concentrations. In: Organohalogen Compounds. Tokyo, Japan, 2007, vol. 69, pp. 2240–2243 (abstr.).
Lewis R.G., Fortune C.R., Willis R.D., Camann D.E., and Antley J.T. Distribution of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in house dust as a function of particle size. Environ Health Perspect 1999: 107 (9): 721–726.
Li K., Fu S., and Xu X.B. Selected Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in House Dust in China. In: Organohalogen Compounds. Beijing, China, 2009, vol. 71, pp 2666–2667 (abstr.).
Lin Y.S., Kupper L.L., and Rappaport S.M. Air samples versus biomarkers for epidemiology. Occup Environ Med 2005: 62 (11): 750–760.
Lorber M. Exposure of Americans to polybrominated diphenyl ethers. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2008: 18 (1): 2–19.
Maertens R.M., Bailey J., and White P.A. The mutagenic hazards of settled house dust: a review. Mutat Res 2004: 567 (2–3): 401–425.
Maertens R.M., Yang X., Zhu J., Gagne R.W., Douglas G.R., and White P.A. Mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards of settled house dust. I: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content and excess lifetime cancer risk from preschool exposure. Environ Sci Technol 2008: 42 (5): 1747–1753.
Mahler B.J., Metre P.C., Wilson J.T., Musgrove M., Burbank T.L., and Ennis T.E., et al. Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: an unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust. Environ Sci Technol 2010: 44 (3): 894–900.
Malarvannan G., Isobe T., Sudaryanto A., Takahashi S., Prudente M., and Tanebe S. Brominated flame retardants in human breast milk and house dust from the Philippines: implications for human exposure. In: Organohalogen Compounds. San Antonio, TX, 2010, vol. 72, pp 1742–1745 (abstr.).
Mannino M.R., and Orecchio S. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust matter of Palermo (Italy) area: extraction, GC–MS analysis, distribution and sources. Atmospheric Environ 2008: 42: 1801–1817.
Meeker J.D., Johnson P.I., Camann D., and Hauser R. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in house dust are related to hormone levels in men. Sci Total Environ 2009: 407 (10): 3425–3429.
Muenhor D., Harrad S., and Evans T.J. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in air and dust from electronic waste storage facilities and houses in Thailand: Implications for human exposure. In: Organohalogen Compounds. Beijing, China, 2009, vol. 71, pp 16–20 (abstr.).
Murkerjee S., Ellenson W.D., Lewis R.G., Stevens R.K., Sommerville M.C., and Shadwick D.S., et al. An environmental scoping study in the lower Rio Grande valley of Texas—III. Residential microenvironmental monitoring for air, house dust, and soil. Environ Int 1997: 23 (5): 657–673.
Pless-Mulloli T., Schecter A., Schilling B., and Paepke O. Levels of PBDE in household dust and lint in the UK, Germany, and the USA. In: Organohalogen Compounds. Oslo, Norway, 2006, vol. 68, pp 495–498 (abstr.).
Rappaport S.M., and Kupper L.L. Some implications of random exposure measurement errors in occupational and environmental epidemiology. In: Wild C., Vineis P., and Garte S. (Eds.). Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases. John Wiley and Sons, West Sussex, England, 2008, p 223.
Regueiro J., Llompart M., Garcia-Jares C., and Cela R. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in domestic dust by microwave-assisted solvent extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 2006: 1137 (1): 1–7.
Regueiro J., Llompart M., Garcia-Jares C., and Cela R. Factorial-design optimization of gas chromatographic analysis of tetrabrominated to decabrominated diphenyl ethers. Application to domestic dust. Anal Bioanal Chem 2007: 388 (5–6): 1095–1107.
Roberts J.W., Wallace L.A., Camann D.E., Dickey P., Gilbert S.G., and Lewis R.G., et al. Monitoring and reducing exposure of infants to pollutants in house dust. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 2009: 201: 1–39.
Roosens L., Abdallah M.A., Harrad S., Neels H., and Covaci A. Factors influencing concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in students from Antwerp, Belgium. Environ Sci Technol 2009: 43 (10): 3535–3541.
Roosens L., Abdallah M.A., Harrad S., Neels H., and Covaci A. Current exposure to persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE) of Belgian students from food and dust. Environ Sci Technol 2010a: 44 (8): 2870–2875.
Roosens L., Cornelis C., D’Hollander W., Bervoets L., Reynders H., and Van Campenhout K., et al. Exposure of the Flemish population to brominated flame retardants: model and risk assessment. Environ Int 2010b: 36 (4): 368–376.
Rudel R.A., Camann D.E., Spengler J.D., Korn L.R., and Brody J.G. Phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and other endocrine-disrupting compounds in indoor air and dust. Environ Sci Technol 2003: 37 (20): 4543–4553.
Rudel R.A., Seryak L.M., and Brody J.G. PCB-containing wood floor finish is a likely source of elevated PCBs in residents’ blood, household air and dust: a case study of exposure. Environ Health 2008: 7: 2.
Saito K., Takekuma M., Ogawa M., Kobayashi S., Sugawara Y., and Ishizuka M., et al. Extraction and cleanup methods of dioxins in house dust from two cities in Japan using accelerated solvent extraction and a disposable multi-layer silica-gel cartridge. Chemosphere 2003: 53 (2): 137–142.
Santillo D., Labunska I., Davidson H., Johnston P., Strutt M., and Knowles O. Consuming Chemicals: Hazardous Chemicals in House Dust as an Indicator of Chemical Exposure in the Home. Greenpeace Research Laboratories, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK, 2003a. Report No.: GRL-TN-01-2003.
Santillo D., Labunska I., Fairley M., and Johnston P. Consuming Chemicals #2: Hazardous Chemicals in House Dust as Indicators of Chemical Exposure in the Home. Greenpeace Research Laboratories, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK, 2003b. Report No.: GRL-TN-02-2003.
Schecter A., Papke O., Joseph J.E., and Tung K.C. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in U.S. computers and domestic carpet vacuuming: possible sources of human exposure. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2005: 68 (7): 501–513.
Seidel U., Schweizer E., Schweinsberg F., Wodarz R., and Rettenmeier A.W. Occurrence of polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) in indoor particulate matter. Environ Health Perspect 1996: 104 (11): 1172–1179.
Sharp R., and Lunder S. In: Walker B., Houlihan J. and Wiles, R. (eds.). In the Dust: Toxic Fire Retardants in American Homes. Environmental Working Group, 2004, pp 1–57. http://www.ewg.org./reports/inthedust.
Sjodin A., Papke O., McGahee E., Focant J.F., Jones R.S., and Pless-Mulloli T., et al. Concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in household dust from various countries. Chemosphere 2008: 73 (1 Suppl): S131–S136.
Stapleton H.M., Dodder N.G., Offenberg J.H., Schantz M.M., and Wise S.A. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in house dust and clothes dryer lint. Environ Sci Technol 2005: 39 (4): 925–931.
Stapleton H.M., Eagle S., Sjodin A., and Webster T.F. U.S. toddler's exposure to flame retardant mixtures: associations between hand wipe residues and house dust. Dioxin 2010: 30th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants. San Antonio, TX, 2010.
Suzuki G., Kida A., Sakai S., and Takigami H. Existence state of bromine as an indicator of the source of brominated flame retardants in indoor dust. Environ Sci Technol 2009: 43 (5): 1437–1442.
Suzuki G., Nose K., Takigami H., Takahashi S., and Sakai S.I. PBDEs and PBDD/Fs in house and office dust from Japan. In: Organohalogen Compounds. Oslo, Norway, 2006, vol. 68, pp 1843–1846 (abstr.).
Takigami H., Suzuki G., Hirai Y., and Sakai S. Brominated flame retardants and other polyhalogenated compounds in indoor air and dust from two houses in Japan. Chemosphere 2009: 76 (2): 270–277.
Tan J., Cheng S.M., Loganath A., Chong Y.S., and Obbard J.P. Selected organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in house dust in Singapore. Chemosphere 2007a: 68 (9): 1675–1682.
Tan J., Cheng S.M., Loganath A., Chong Y.S., and Obbard J.P. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in house dust in Singapore. Chemosphere 2007b: 66 (6): 985–992.
Technical Bulletin 117. Requirements, Test Procedure, and Apparatus for Testing the Flame Retardance of Resilient Filling Materials used in Upholstered Furniture. State of California, Department of Consumer Affairs Bureau of Home Furnishings and Thermal Insulation: North Highlands, CA, 2000.
The Weather Channel. National and local weather forecast [homepage on the Internet], 2010. Available from: http://www.weather.com/.
Toms L.M., Bartkow M.E., Symons R., Paepke O., and Mueller J.F. Assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples collected from indoor environments in South East Queensland, Australia. Chemosphere 2009a: 76 (2): 173–178.
Toms L.M., Hearn L., Kennedy K., Harden F., Bartkow M., and Temme C., et al. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in matched samples of human milk, dust and indoor air. Environ Int 2009b: 35 (6): 864–869.
Tue N.M., Suzuki G., Isobe T., Takahashi S., Viet P.H., and Tanebe S. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants and dioxin-like activities associated with E-waste recycling in Vietnamese house dust. In: Organohalogen Compounds, Beijing, China, 2009, vol. 71, pp 357–360 (abstr.).
U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. Density using land area for states, counties, metropolitan areas, and places [homepage on the Internet], 2010. Available from: http://www.census.gov/population/www/censusdata/density.html.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Polcyclic organic matter (POM) [homepage on the Internet], 2007. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/polycycl.html.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) [homepage on the Internet]. Washington, DC, 2010. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/oppt/pbde/.
Van Metre P.C., Mahler B.J., and Wilson J.T. PAHs underfoot: contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States. Environ Sci Technol 2009: 43 (1): 20–25.
Vorhees D., Cullen A.C., and Altshul L.M. Polychlorinated biphenyls in house dust and yard soil near a superfund site. Environ Sci Technol 1999: 33 (13): 2151–2156.
Vorkamp K., Thomsen M., Frederiksen M., Pedersen M., and Knudsen L.E. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the indoor environment and associations with prenatal exposure. Environ Int 2011: 37 (1): 1–10.
Wang D., Atkinson S., Hoover-Miller A., Shelver W.L., and Li Q.X. Simultaneous use of gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry—electron capture detection to improve the analysis of bromodiphenyl ethers in biological and environmental samples. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2008: 22 (5): 647–656.
Wang J., Ma Y.J., Chen S.J., Tian M., Luo X.J., and Mai B.X. Brominated flame retardants in house dust from e-waste recycling and urban areas in south China: implications on human exposure. Environ Int 2010: 36 (6): 535–541.
Ward M.H., Colt J.S., Metayer C., Gunier R.B., Lubin J., and Crouse V., et al. Residential exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides and risk of childhood leukemia. Environ Health Perspect 2009: 117 (6): 1007–1013.
Webster T.F., Harrad S., Millette J.R., Holbrook R.D., Davis J.M., and Stapleton H.M., et al. Identifying transfer mechanisms and sources of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) in indoor environments using environmental forensic microscopy. Environ Sci Technol 2009: 43 (9): 3067–3072.
Webster T.F., Watkins D.J., Walker C., Fraser A.J., Heiger-Bernays W., and Stapleton H.M., et al. PentaBDE Alternatives in U.S. indoor environments. Dioxin 2010: 30th International Symopsium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants, San Antonio, TX, 2010.
Wei H., Turyk M., Cali S., Dorevitch S., Erdal S., and Li A. Particle size fractionation and human exposure of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor dust from Chicago. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2009: 44 (13): 1353–1361.
Wenning R.J., Bock M., Maier M., and Luksemburg W.J. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and PCBs in indoor house dust. In: Organohalogen Compounds, Oslo, Norway, 2006, vol. 68, pp 395–398 (abstr.).
Whitehead T., Holden A., Odion Z., Vista P., Brown F.R., and Metayer C., et al. A method for the determination of PBDEs, PCBs, pesticides and PAHs in dust. In: Organohalogen Compounds. San Antonio, TX, 2010, vol. 72, pp 181–184 (abstr.) .
Whitehead T., Metayer C., Gunier R.B., Ward M.H., Nishioka M.G., and Buffler P., et al. Determinants of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in house dust. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2011: 21 (2): 123–132.
Whitehead T., Metayer C., Ward M.H., Nishioka M.G., Gunier R., and Colt J.S., et al. Is house-dust nicotine a good surrogate for household smoking? Am J Epidemiol 2009: 169 (9): 1113–1123.
Whitehead T., Nuckols J.R., Ward M.H., and Rappaport S.M. Carpet-dust chemicals as measures of exposure for epidemiology: implications of attenuation bias. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology (submitted).
Wilford B.H., Shoeib M., Harner T., Zhu J., and Jones K.C. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor dust in Ottawa, Canada: implications for sources and exposure. Environ Sci Technol 2005: 39 (18): 7027–7035.
Wilson N.K., Chuang J.C., Lyu C., Menton R., and Morgan M.K. Aggregate exposures of nine preschool children to persistent organic pollutants at day care and at home. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 2003: 13 (3): 187–202.
Wu N., Herrmann T., Paepke O., Tickner J., Hale R., and Harvey L.E., et al. Human exposure to PBDEs: associations of PBDE body burdens with food consumption and house dust concentrations. Environ Sci Technol 2007: 41 (5): 1584–1589.
Zota A.R., Rudel R.A., Morello-Frosch R.A., and Brody J.G. Elevated house dust and serum concentrations of PBDEs in California: unintended consequences of furniture flammability standards? Environ Sci Technol 2008: 42 (21): 8158–8164.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Whitehead, T., Metayer, C., Buffler, P. et al. Estimating exposures to indoor contaminants using residential dust. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 21, 549–564 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2011.11
- polychlorinated biphenyls
- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
- flame retardants
This article is cited by
An overview of organic contaminants in indoor dust, their health impact, geographical distribution and recent extraction/analysis methods
Environmental Geochemistry and Health (2022)
Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in humans and environmental compartments: a comprehensive review of the last five years of research
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2020)
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology (2019)
PAH concentrations and exposure assessment from house dust retained in air-conditioning filters collected from Greater Doha, Qatar
Environmental Geochemistry and Health (2019)
Indoor phthalate concentrations in residences in Shihezi, China: implications for preschool children’s exposure and risk assessment
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2019)