Table 2: Effect modification of composition on the estimated percent increase in mortality with a 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 (from Franklin et al. 2008)

From: Semi-continuous speciation analyses for ambient air particulate matter: An urgent need for health effects studies

CauseSpeciesP-value for effect modification by species to PM2.5 mass proportionIncrease in non-accidental mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 for an interquartile increase in species to PM2.5 mass proportiona (%)Heterogeneity explained (%)b
Non-accidental univariateAI<0.0010.5845
 As0.020.5535
 Br0.110.385
 Cr0.120.3316
 EC0.790.060
 Fe0.430.123
 K0.100.4128
 Mn0.420.1410
 Na+0.220.2014
 Ni0.010.3741
 NO30.07−0.4928
 NH4+0.840.043
 OC0.59−0.024
 Pb0.310.1711
 Si0.030.4125
 SO42−0.010.5133
 V0.280.303
 Zn0.190.2315
Non-accidental multivariate (1)AI<0.0010.79 
 Ni0.010.34100
 SO42−<0.0010.75 
Non-accidental multivariate (2)AI<0.0010.61 
 Ni0.010.34100
 As<0.0010.58 
  1. aAdjusted for temperature.
  2. bIncludes heterogeneity explained by temperature.