Figure 4

From: Cigarette smoking and the oral microbiome in a large study of American adults

Figure 4

Bacterial taxa associated with smoking status are related to several gene functional pathways. Bacterial gene functions were predicted from 16S rRNA gene-based microbial compositions using the PICRUSt algorithm to make inferences from KEGG annotated databases. Genus and KEGG pathway counts were normalized for DESeq2 size factors and adjusted for data set using the 'removeBatchEffect' function (limma). Spearman's correlation coefficients were estimated for each pairwise comparison of genus counts and KEGG pathway counts, adjusting for age and sex. Only KEGG pathways relating to carbohydrate, energy, xenobiotic and glycan metabolism and selected genera of interest are included in the heatmap; full lists of genera and KEGG pathways associated with smoking can be found in Supplementary Tables S4, S5 and S7.