Figure 1

From: Cigarette smoking and the oral microbiome in a large study of American adults

Figure 1

Overall oral microbiome composition according to smoking status (current, former and never) in 1204 individuals. The principal coordinate analysis was conducted based on the weighted UniFrac distance. Sixty-eight percent confidence ellipses were drawn using the panel.ellipse function (Lattice, R), and centroids represent the coordinate mean of the first and second axes. (a) Adjusting for data set, age and sex, there was a significant difference in composition according to smoking status (P=0.001). (b) When combining former and never smokers, there was a significant difference in composition between current and non-current smokers (P=0.001). Comparison of within (c) and between (d) group distances for all smoking categories indicated that never and former smokers are more alike than are the current smokers.