Sequential Fluorescent Labeling Observation of Maxillary Sinus Augmentation by a Tissue‐engineered Bone Complex in Canine Model

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To evaluate the effects of maxillary sinus floor elevation by a tissue‐engineered bone complex of β‐tricalcium phosphate (β‐TCP) and autologous osteoblasts in dogs.


Autologous osteoblasts from adult Beagle dogs were cultured in vitro. They were further combined with β‐TCP to construct the tissue‐engineered bone complex. 12 cases of maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery were made bilaterally in 6 animals and randomly repaired with the following 3 groups of materials: Group A (osteoblasts/β‐TCP); Group B (β‐TCP); Group C (autogenous bone) (n=4 per group). A polychrome sequential fluorescent labeling was performed post‐operatively and the animals were sacrificed 24 weeks after operation for histological observation.


Our results showed that autologous osteoblasts were successfully expanded and the osteoblastic phenol‐types were confirmed by ALP and Alizarin red staining. The cells could attach and proliferate well on the surface of the β‐TCP scaffold. The fluorescent and histological observation showed that the tissue‐engineered bone complex had an earlier mineralization and more bone formation inside the scaffold than β‐TCP along or even autologous bone. It had also maximally maintained the elevated sinus height than both control groups.


Porous β‐TCP has served as a good scaffold for autologous osteoblasts seeding. The tissue‐engineered bone complex with β‐TCP and autologous osteoblasts might be a better alternative to autologous bone for the clinical edentulous maxillary sinus augmentation.

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Correspondence to Zhi‐yuan Zhang.

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  • maxillary sinus augmentation
  • tissue engineering
  • β‐tricalcium phosphate
  • osteoblasts
  • fluorescent labeling

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